atrioventricular block

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block

 [blok]
1. to obstruct.
atrioventricular block
1. any interruption of the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles; it can occur at the level of the atria, the atrioventricular node, the bundle of His, or the Purkinje system. See heart block.
2. a type of heart block in which the blocking is at the atrioventricular junction. It is first degree when atrioventricular conduction time is prolonged; it is called second degree or partial when some but not all atrial impulses reach the ventricle; and it is called third degree or complete when no atrial impulses at all reach the ventricle, so that the atria and ventricles act independently of each other.
atrioventricular block, complete see atrioventricular block.
atrioventricular block, first degree see atrioventricular block.
atrioventricular block, partial see atrioventricular block.
atrioventricular block, second degree see atrioventricular block.
atrioventricular block, third degree see atrioventricular block.
Bier block regional anesthesia by intravenous injection, used for surgical procedures on the forearm or the lower leg; performed in a bloodless field maintained by a pneumatic tourniquet that also prevents anesthetic from entering the systemic circulation. Called also intravenous block and IV block.
bifascicular block the combination of complete right bundle branch block with either left anterior fascicular block or left posterior fascicular block. This is an imprecise though commonly used term; specific terms defining the structures involved are preferred.
bundle branch block (BBB) a form of heart block involving delay or failure of conduction in one of the branches in the bundle of His, as determined by an electrocardiogram. It may be complete or incomplete, transient, permanent, or intermittent, and is also named according to involvement of the left or the right bundle branch. It is impossible to determine if bundle branch block is complete or not. When associated with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, bundle branch block identifies a high-risk patient. See accompanying table.
bundle branch block, bilateral heart block characterized by conduction disturbance in the right and left bundle branches; it may be alternate, intermittent, or permanent. Complete bilateral bundle branch block results in complete (third degree) atrioventricular block.
bundle branch block, complete heart block characterized by absence of conduction in a bundle branch or conduction delay, causing ventricular activation to occur largely or exclusively through the contralateral bundle.
bundle branch block, incomplete heart block characterized by delayed conduction within a bundle branch, resulting in a delay in activation of the ipsilateral ventricle.
bundle branch block, right heart block characterized by a delay or failure of impulse propagation through the right bundle branch; it may be either complete or incomplete. See accompanying table.
caudal block caudal anesthesia.
cervical plexus block regional anesthesia of the neck by injection of a local anesthetic into the cervical plexus.
entrance block a zone of depressed conduction surrounding a pacemaker focus, protecting it from discharge by an extraneous impulse but not necessarily from discharges by electrotonic influences.
epidural block epidural anesthesia.
exit block heart block characterized by failure of an expected impulse to emerge from its focus of origin and propagate; this usually occurs with a parasystolic focus, but is also seen with sinus, junctional, and ventricular rhythms. In cardiac pacing it means that the pacemaker stimulus is not of sufficient amplitude to stimulate the heart, such as when there is a very high threshold.
fascicular block heart block characterized by certain abnormal QRS waveforms ascribed to conduction disturbance in the anterior and posterior divisions of the left bundle branch.
fascicular block, left anterior heart block characterized by delay or interruption of impulse conduction in the anterior superior division of the left bundle branch, resulting in asynchronous activation of the left ventricle.
fascicular block, left posterior heart block characterized by delay or interruption of impulse conduction in the posterior inferior division of the left bundle branch, resulting in asynchronous activation of the left ventricle.
femoral block regional anesthesia of the posterior thigh and the lower leg by injection of a local anesthetic around the femoral nerve just below the inguinal ligament at the lateral border of the fossa ovalis.
field block regional anesthesia by blocking conduction in nerves with chemical or physical agents.
heart block see heart block.
intravenous block Bier block.
intraventricular block impaired conduction within the ventricles due to absence of conduction within the bundle branches, their ramifications, or the ventricles.
intraventricular block, unspecified any heart block characterized by an electrocardiographic pattern of intraventricular conduction disturbance and not qualifying as a bundle branch block or a fascicular block.
interventricular block bundle branch block.
IV block Bier block.
lumbar plexus block regional anesthesia of the anterior and medial aspects of the lower limb by injection of a local anesthetic into the lumbar plexus.
mental block blocking (def. 3).
metabolic block the blocking of a biosynthetic pathway due to a genetic enzyme defect or to inhibition of an enzyme by a drug or other substance.
Mobitz type I block a second degree atrioventricular block in which the P-R interval increases progressively until an atrial impulse is blocked. Called also Wenckebach's phenomenon or block.
Mobitz type II block a second degree atrioventricular block in which the P-R interval is fixed, with periodic blocking of the atrial impulse to the ventricle.
nerve block regional anesthesia by injection of an anesthetic close to the appropriate nerve.
paracervical block regional anesthesia of the inferior hypogastric plexus and ganglia produced by injection of the local anesthetic into the lateral fornices of the vagina.
paraneural block perineural block.
parasacral block regional anesthesia by injection of a local anesthetic around the sacral nerves as they emerge from the sacral foramina.
paravertebral block paravertebral anesthesia.
perineural block regional anesthesia produced by injection of the anesthetic agent close to the nerve. Called also paraneural anesthesia or block and perineural anesthesia.
presacral block regional anesthesia produced by injection of the local anesthetic into the sacral nerves on the anterior aspect of the sacrum.
pudendal block regional anesthesia produced by blocking the pudendal nerves, accomplished by injection of the local anesthetic into the tuberosity of the ischium.
The pudendal block. The pudendal nerves can be effectively blocked by a local anesthetic, thereby anesthetizing the perineum. From Nichols and Zwelling, 1997.
retrobulbar block that performed by injection of a local anesthetic into the retrobulbar space to anesthetize and immobilize the eye.
sacral block regional anesthesia produced by injection of the local anesthetic into the extradural space of the spinal canal.
saddle block regional anesthesia in an area corresponding roughly with the areas of the buttocks, perineum, and inner aspects of the thighs, by introducing the anesthetic agent low in the dural sac. Called also saddle block anesthesia.
sinoatrial block a type of heart block characterized by partial or complete interference with the propagation of impulses from the sinoatrial node to the atria, resulting in delay or absence of the atrial response.
spinal block spinal anesthesia.
subarachnoid block spinal anesthesia (def. 2).
trifascicular block an imprecise term referring to heart block characterized by failure of conduction, partial or complete, in all three of the fascicles of the intraventricular conduction system; i.e., there is simultaneous right bundle branch block, left anterior hemiblock, and left posterior hemiblock. In the setting of acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, this is an ominous sign. More precise terms referring to the specifically involved structures are preferred.
vagal block (vagus nerve block) regional anesthesia produced by blocking of vagal impulses by injection of a solution of local anesthetic into the vagus nerve at its exit from the skull.
Wenckebach block Mobitz type I block.
wrist block regional anesthesia of the hand by injection of a local anesthetic around the median, radial, and ulnar nerves at the wrist.

a·tri·o·ven·tric·u·lar block

, AV block
partial or complete block of electrical impulses originating in the atrium or sinus node, preventing them from reaching the AV node and ventricles. In first-degree AV block, there is prolongation of AV conduction time (PR interval); in second-degree AV block, some but not all atrial impulses fail to reach the ventricles, thus some ventricular beats are dropped; in complete AV block (third degree), complete atrioventricular dissociation (2) occurs; atria and ventricles beat independently.
Synonym(s): block (3) , heart block

atrioventricular block

(ā′trē-ō-vĕn-trĭk′yə-lər)
n.
Impairment of the normal conduction of impulses between atria and ventricles.

atrioventricular block (AVB)

Etymology: L, atrium + ventriculus, little belly
a disorder of cardiac impulse transmission that reflects prolonged, intermittent, or absent conduction of impulses between the atria and ventricles. It commonly occurs at the AV node or within the bundle branch system. Treatment depends on where the block is located and whether it is transient or permanent. Heart rate-supporting drugs or pacemaker insertion are common options. See also heart block, intraatrial block, intraventricular block, sinoatrial (SA) block.

atrioventricular block

A-V block Cardiology A delay in conduction or failure of the electrical impulse to reach the ventricular conducting system, which may occur at the atrium, at the A-V node, in the bundle of His, or in the bundle branches Drugs causing Clonidine, methyldopa, verapamil Clinical Asymptomatic or may require a pacemaker. See Complete heart block, Sick sinus syndrome.
Atrioventricular Blocks
1st -degree A-V block
P-R intervals > 0.2 sec; all P waves are conducted to ventricle, ie, followed by a QRS complex–usually benign
2nd -degree A-V block
Mobitz I–aka Wenckebach block
P-R intervals ↑ in length until a beat is 'dropped'; PR interval after a blocked beat is prolonged; Mobitz I blocks often follow an MI–usually benign
Mobitz II
P-R interval of conducted beat is constant–conduction ratio ≥ 3:1; occasionally P fails to conduct an impulse–may have serious clinical implications
3rd -degree A-V block
Dissociation of atrial and ventricular activity; atrial rate is > ventricular rate; permanent pacemaker is required

atrioventricular

pertaining to an atrium and ventricle of the heart.

accessory tract atrioventricular conduction
see accessory tract atrioventricular conduction.
atrioventricular block
see atrioventricular heart block.
atrioventricular bundle
bundle of His.
common atrioventricular canal
a congenital cardiac defect in which both sides of the heart share the same atrioventricular orifice. Called also persistent atrioventricular canal, atrioventricularis communis.
atrioventricular node
a mass of cardiac muscle fibers (Purkinje fibers) lying on the right lower part of the interatrial septum of the heart. Its function is the transmission of the cardiac impulse from the sinoatrial node to the muscular walls of the ventricles. The conductive system is organized so that transmission is slightly delayed at the atrioventricular node, thus allowing time for the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles begin to contract.
partitioning atrioventricular canal
during embryological development partitioning of the cardiac chambers and their orifices may be incomplete, leading to fatal cardiac defects, e.g. persistent atrioventricular chamber.
persistent common atrioventricular canal
atrioventricular stenosis
left and right atrioventricular stenosis are recorded; the former is an acyanotic defect, the latter is more serious and a cyanotic defect.
atrioventricular trunk
see bundle of His.
atrioventricular valvular disease
may be identifiable on finding of systolic murmur (incompetent valve) or diastolic murmur (stenotic valve) over the apex of the heart with maximum audibility over the left or right sides, depending on the side involved.
Wenckebach atrioventricular block
see Mobitz atrioventricular heart block.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, before treatment, complete AV block should be suspected and evaluated with an ECG recording.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed complete AV block (Fig.
Because of preexisting complete AV block in our patient, a wide QRS tachycardia could only be a VT.
Furthermore, our case is interesting because a history of VDD pacemaker implantation due to complete AV block.
Mobitz type II 2nd-degree AV block and complete AV block are rare presentations of digoxin toxicity.

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