communicable disease


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communicable disease

 [kŏ-mu´nĭ-kah-b'l]
a disease whose causative agents may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly. Modes of transmission include (1) direct contact with body excreta or discharges from an ulcer, open sore, or respiratory tract; (2) indirect contact with inanimate objects such as drinking glasses, toys, or bedclothing; and (3) vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, or other insects capable of spreading the disease. For special precautions to prevent the spread of communicable disease, see isolation. Called also contagious disease.

com·mu·ni·ca·ble dis·ease

any disease that is transmissible by infection or contagion directly or through the agency of a vector.

communicable disease

any disease transmitted from one person or animal to another directly, by contact with excreta or other discharges from the body; indirectly, by means of substances or inanimate objects, such as contaminated drinking glasses, toys, or water; or by means of vectors, such as flies, mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Communicable diseases may be caused by bacteria, chlamydia, fungi, parasites, rickettsiae, and viruses. To control a communicable disease, it is important to identify the organism, prevent its spread to the environment, protect others against contamination, and treat the infected person. Many communicable diseases, by law, must be reported to the local health department. Also called contagious disease.

communicable disease

An infection by a pathogen which is easily spread by direct or relatively close contact.

communicable disease

An infection by a pathogen that is easily spread by close or relatively close contact

com·mu·ni·ca·ble dis·ease

(kŏ-myūn'i-kă-bĕl di-zēz')
Any disorder that is transmissible by infection or contagion directly or indirectly or through the agency of a vector.

communicable disease

An infectious disease. A disease capable of being transmitted, by any means, from one person to another.

com·mu·ni·ca·ble dis·ease

(kŏ-myūn'i-kă-bĕl di-zēz')
Disorder that is transmissible by infection or contagion directly or through the agency of a vector.

communicable disease,

n a disease transmitted from one person or animal to another directly or by vectors.

disease

traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological or clinicopathological basis, and with a recognizable syndrome or constellation of clinical signs.
This definition has long since been widened to embrace subclinical diseases in which there is no tangible clinical syndrome but which are identifiable by chemical, hematological, biophysical, microbiological or immunological means. The definition is used even more widely to include failure to produce at expected levels in the presence of normal levels of nutritional supply and environmental quality. It is to be expected that the detection of residues of disqualifying chemicals in foods of animal origin will also come to be included within the scope of disease.
For specific diseases see under the specific name, e.g. Aujeszsky's disease, Bang's disease, foot-and-mouth disease.

air-borne disease
the causative agent is transmitted via the air without the need for intervention by other medium. See also wind-borne disease.
disease carrier
clinical disease
see clinical (3).
disease cluster
a group of animals with the same disease occurs at an unusual level of prevalence for the population as a whole. The cluster may be in space, with high concentrations in particular localities, or in time, with high concentrations in particular seasons or in particular years.
communicable disease
infectious disease in which the causative agents may pass or be carried from one animal to another directly or indirectly on inanimate objects or via vectors.
complicating disease
one that occurs in the course of some other disease as a complication.
constitutional disease
one involving a system of organs or one with widespread signs.
contagious disease
see communicable disease (above).
disease control
reducing the prevalence of a disease in a population, including eradication, by chemical, pharmaceutical, quarantine, management including culling, or other means or combinations of means.
disease control programs
organized routines specifying agents, administration, time and personnel allocations, community support, funding, participation of corporate or government agencies, animal and animal product disposal.
deficiency disease
a condition due to dietary or metabolic deficiency, including all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients.
degenerative joint disease
see degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis.
demyelinating disease
any condition characterized by destruction of myelin.
disease determinant
any variable associated with a disease which, if removed or altered, results in a change in the incidence of the disease.
egg-borne disease
an infectious disease of birds in which the agent is spread via the egg.
endemic disease
see endemic.
environmental disease control
control by changing the environment, e.g. draining a swamp, ventilating a barn.
epidemic disease
etiological disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their etiological agents, e.g. bacterial, mycoplasma.
exotic disease
a disease that does not occur in the subject country. Said of infectious diseases that may be introduced, e.g. rabies is exotic to the UK, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is exotic to the USA.
focal disease
a localized disease.
fulminant disease
an explosive outbreak in a group or a rapidly developing, peracute development of a disease in an individual. Called also fulminating.
functional disease
any disease involving body functions but not associated with detectable organic lesion or change.
generalized disease
one involving all or many body systems; often said of infectious diseases in which there is spread via the bloodstream. See also systemic disease (below).
glycogen disease
any of a group of genetically determined disorders of glycogen metabolism, marked by abnormal storage of glycogen in the body tissues. See also glycogen storage disease.
heavy chain disease
hemolytic disease of newborn
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
hemorrhagic disease of newborn
see neonatal hemorrhagic disease.
disease history
that part of a patient's history which relates only to the disease from which the patient is suffering.
holoendemic disease
most animals in the population are affected.
hyperendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady but high.
hypoendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady and only a few animals are infected.
immune complex disease
see immune complex disease.
infectious disease
one caused by small living organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoan parasites. It may be contagious in origin, result from nosocomial infections or be due to endogenous microflora of the nose and throat, skin or bowel. See also communicable disease (above).
manifestational disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their clinical signs, epidemiological characteristics, necropsy lesions, e.g. sudden death diseases.
mesoendemic disease
the disease occurs at an even rate and a moderate proportion of animals are infected.
metabolic disease
see metabolic diseases.
molecular disease
any disease in which the pathogenesis can be traced to a single, precise chemical alteration, usually of a protein, which is either abnormal in structure or present in reduced amounts. The corresponding defect in the DNA coding for the protein may also be known.
multicausal disease
1. a number of causative agents are needed to combine to cause the disease.
2. the same disease can be caused by a number of different agents.
multifactorial disease
see multicausal disease (above).
new disease
disease not previously recorded. May be variants on an existing disease, e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, or escapes from other species, e.g. the Marburg virus disease of humans.
notifiable disease
a disease of which any occurrence is required by law to be notified to government authorities.
organic disease
see organic disease.
pandemic disease
a very widespread epidemic involving several countries or an entire continent.
quarantinable disease
a disease which the law requires to be restricted in its spread by putting the affected animals, farms or properties on which it occurs in quarantine.
reportable disease
see notifiable disease (above).
disease reservoir
any animal or fomite in which an infectious disease agent is preserved in a viable state or multiplies and upon which it may depend for survival.
secondary disease
1. a disease subsequent to or a consequence of another disease or condition.
2. a condition due to introduction of incompatible, immunologically competent cells into a host rendered incapable of rejecting them by heavy exposure to ionizing radiation.
self-limited disease
sex-limited disease
disease limited in its occurrence to one or other sex. See also sex-linked.
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
a disease that can be acquired by sexual intercourse.
slaughter disease control
see slaughter (2).
sporadic disease
occurring singly and haphazardly; widely scattered; not epidemic or endemic. See also sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, sporadic leukosis, sporadic lymphangitis.
storage disease
disease syndrome
systemic disease
sufficiently widespread in the body to cause clinical signs referable to any organ or system, and in which localization of infection may occur in any organ.
disease triangle
interaction between the host, the disease agent, and the environment.
disease wastage
loss of income generated by production of milk, eggs, fiber, or loss of capital value because of diminution in the patient's value.
wasting disease
any disease marked especially by progressive emaciation and weakness.
zoonotic disease
disease capable of spread from animals to humans. See also zoonosis.

Patient discussion about communicable disease

Q. Is psoriasis infectious? Last week I and my friends from high-school went to the pool. One of my friend has psoriasis on his back, and when the lifeguard noticed it he asked him to leave the pool because he has skin disease that may spread to the other people swimming in the pool. We told him it is psoriasis and not some fungus, but he told us that psoriasis is also infectious. Is that true? Can psoriasis infect people who come in touch with people with psoriasis? Can I go swimming with him or should be more cautious?

A. It is right that psoriasis is not a contagious skin condition. But your friend should take care. However keeping skin humid is better for Psoriasis patients as I recently read these tips at
http://www.vitiligoguide.com/psoriasis/

Q. Is leukemia contagious? A friend of mine got leukemia (blood cancer), can I get it from him if he bleeds and I touch the blood? Like HIV I mean.

A. No, you don't have to be afraid, no chance of that. Your friend will need you to pass this terrible illness. So I recommend learning a bit about leukemia so you understand it better and won't avoid your friend.
You can get information on those 2 sites:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/leukemia/DS00351

http://library.thinkquest.org/C006095/root/glossary.htm

Q. Is psoriasis contagious? My wife got psoriasis and I don’t want to get infected…

A. Psoriasis itself, as was written above, isn't contagious, i.e. if someone has psoriasis he or she can't transmit it to you. However, there is a form of psoriasis called psoriasis guttate that is associated with infection of the throat by a bacterium called streptococcus (which is contagious), so in some way it is contagious.

You may read more here:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psoriasis#Types_of_psoriasis

More discussions about communicable disease
References in periodicals archive ?
One of these modules is No Outbreaks Here: Simple Strategies for Reducing the Spread of Communicable Diseases at Camp.
The growing global attention to the prevention and control of communicable diseases is demonstrated by the fact they dominate the public health agenda of world leaders (e.
This invitation should include an overview of the facility's medical programs that cover chronic care and communicable disease control.
We don't want the result of the cuts to be substantial increases in communicable diseases,'' he said.
Whether or not these expectations are justified, treating behavior as if it were a communicable disease is problematic.
In the past five years, there have been many major changes in health protection practice, and significant scientific progress in the field, all of which are reflected in this new edition of the popular Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook.
People who know or suspect they are infected with any communicable disease will be barred from travelling anywhere except a clinic to seek health care, unless otherwise permitted by the Health Ministry.
Postdisaster communicable disease incidence is related more closely to the characteristics of the displaced population (size, health status, living conditions) than to the precipitating event.
Suzanne Rue, communicable disease resource nurse for the Los Angeles Unified School District, said one campus in the San Fernando Valley reported that half of one of its classes came down with the symptoms.
Laine Okbazghi, head of prevention and control of communicable disease at the branch office, made reference to instances of diseases in the region have shown decline thanks to active follow-up, and that a research targeting controlling such diseases has been undertaken.
The legislation, being reviewed by the health committee of the Federal National Council, states that a person who knowingly exposes another to a communicable disease can face up to five years in prison, a fine of up to Dh100,000 or both for failing to comply with control measures.
The updated edition includes 11 new chapters on topics fundamental to a global public health landscape, including risk management, public health security in a globalized world, the World Health Organization's 2005 International Health Regulations, reporting of communicable diseases, outbreak response in bioterrorism, communicable disease control in humanitarian emergencies and handling of infectious materials.

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