comminuted fracture


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fracture

 [frak´chur]
1. the breaking of a part, especially a bone.
2. a break in continuity of bone; it may be caused by trauma, twisting due to muscle spasm or indirect loss of leverage, or by disease that results in osteopenia. See illustration.
Types of fractures.
Treatment. Immediate first aid consists of splinting the bone with no attempt to reduce the fracture; it should be splinted “as it lies,” which means supporting it in such a way that the injured part will remain steady and will resist jarring if the victim is moved. Later it will be treated by reduction, which means that the broken ends are pulled into alignment and the continuity of the bone is established so that healing can take place. Fracture healing is truly a process of regeneration. Fractures heal with normal bone, not with scar tissue. Closed reduction is performed by manual manipulation of the fractured bone so that the fragments are brought into proper alignment; no surgical incision is made. Open fractures are highly contaminated and must be débrided and copiously irrigated in the operating room. A fracture may also require internal fixation with pins, nails, metal plates, or screws to stabilize the alignment. Once closed reduction is accomplished, the bone is immobilized by application of a cast or by an apparatus exerting traction on the distal end of the bone.
avulsion fracture separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
Barton's fracture fracture of the distal end of the radius into the wrist joint.
Bennett's fracture fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, running into the carpometacarpal joint, complicated by subluxation.
blow-out fracture fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force; the orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus so that the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle may become incarcerated in the fracture site, producing diplopia on looking up.
closed fracture one that does not produce an open wound, as opposed to an open fracture. See illustration. Called also simple fracture.
Colles' fracture fracture of the lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
comminuted fracture one in which the bone is splintered or crushed, with three or more fragments. See illustration.
complete fracture one involving the entire cross section of the bone.
compound fracture open fracture.
compression fracture one produced by compression.
depressed fracture (depressed skull fracture) fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed.
direct fracture one at the site of injury.
dislocation fracture fracture of a bone near an articulation with concomitant dislocation of that joint.
double fracture fracture of a bone in two places.
Dupuytren's fracture Pott's fracture.
Duverney's fracture fracture of the ilium just below the anterior inferior spine.
fissure fracture a crack extending from a surface into, but not through, a long bone.
greenstick fracture one in which one side of a bone is broken and the other is bent, most commonly seen in children. See illustration.
impacted fracture fracture in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
incomplete fracture one that does not involve the complete cross section of the bone.
indirect fracture one distant from the site of injury.
interperiosteal fracture greenstick fracture.
intrauterine fracture fracture of a fetal bone incurred in utero.
Jefferson's fracture fracture of the atlas (first cervical vertebra).
lead pipe fracture one in which the bone cortex is slightly compressed and bulged on one side with a slight crack on the other side of the bone.
Le Fort fracture bilateral horizontal fracture of the maxilla. Le Fort fractures are classified as follows: Le Fort I fracture, a horizontal segmented fracture of the alveolar process of the maxilla, in which the teeth are usually contained in the detached portion of the bone. Le Fort II fracture, unilateral or bilateral fracture of the maxilla, in which the body of the maxilla is separated from the facial skeleton and the separated portion is pyramidal in shape; the fracture may extend through the body of the maxilla down the midline of the hard palate, through the floor of the orbit, and into the nasal cavity. Le Fort III fracture, a fracture in which the entire maxilla and one or more facial bones are completely separated from the craniofacial skeleton; such fractures are almost always accompanied by multiple fractures of the facial bones.
longitudinal fracture one extending along the length of the bone. See illustration.
Monteggia's fracture one in the proximal half of the shaft of the ulna, with dislocation of the head of the radius.
oblique fracture one in which the break extends in an oblique direction. See illustration.
open fracture one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissue communicates with the outside of the body; this must be considered a surgical emergency. The compounding may come from within (by a bone protruding through the skin) or from without (e.g., by a bullet wound communicating with the bone). See illustration. Called also compound fracture.
pathologic fracture one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathologic processes such as neoplasia or osteomalacia; see illustration. Called also spontaneous fracture.
pertrochanteric fracture fracture of the femur passing through the greater trochanter.
ping-pong fracture an indented fracture of the skull, resembling the indentation that can be produced with the finger in a ping-pong ball; when elevated it resumes and retains its normal position.
Pott's fracture fracture of lower part of the fibula with serious injury of the lower tibial articulation.
simple fracture closed fracture.
Smith's fracture reversed Colles' fracture.
spiral fracture one in which the bone has been twisted and the fracture line resembles a spiral. See illustration.
spontaneous fracture pathologic fracture.
sprain fracture the separation of a tendon from its insertion, taking with it a piece of bone.
stellate fracture one with a central point of injury, from which radiate numerous fissures.
Stieda's fracture a fracture of the internal condyle of the femur.
transcervical fracture one through the neck of the femur.
transverse fracture one at right angles to the axis of the bone. See illustration.
trophic fracture one due to a nutritional (trophic) disturbance.

com·mi·nut·ed frac·ture

a fracture in which the bone is broken into more than two fragments.

comminuted fracture

a fracture in which the bone is broken in several places or is shattered, creating numerous fragments. Also called comminution, fragmented fracture.

comminuted fracture

Orthopedics A fracture with multiple pieces of broken bone. See Fracture.

com·mi·nut·ed frac·ture

(kom'i-nū'tĕd frak'shŭr)
A fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces.

Comminuted fracture

A fracture where there are several breaks in a bone creating numerous fragments.
Mentioned in: Fractures

com·mi·nut·ed frac·ture

(kom'i-nū'tĕd frak'shŭr)
A fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces.

fracture

1. the breaking of a part, especially a bone.
2. a break in the continuity of bone. Fractures may be caused by trauma, by twisting due to muscle spasm, or indirect loss of leverage or by disease that results in decalcification of the bone.

avulsion fracture
separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
blow-out fracture
fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force; the orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus so that the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle may become incarcerated in the fracture site, producing diplopia on looking up.
capillary fracture
one that appears on a radiograph as a fine, hairlike line, the segments of bone not being separated; sometimes seen in fractures of the skull.
closed fracture
one that does not produce an open wound.
comminuted fracture
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
complete fracture
one involving the entire cross-section of the bone.
compound fracture
see open fracture (below).
compression fracture
one produced by compression.
contaminated fracture
see open fracture (below).
depressed fracture
fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed. See also depression fracture.
direct fracture
one at the site of injury.
dislocation fracture
fracture of a bone near an articulation with concomitant dislocation of that joint.
double fracture
fracture of a bone in two places.
fissure fracture
a crack extending from a surface into, but not through, a long bone.
greenstick fracture
one in which one side of a bone is broken, the other being bent.
impacted fracture
fracture in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
incomplete fracture
one that does not involve the complete cross-section of the bone.
indirect fracture
one at a point distant from the site of injury.
interperiosteal fracture
greenstick or incomplete fracture.
intrauterine fracture
fracture of a fetal bone incurred in utero.
lead pipe fracture
one in which the bone cortex is slightly compressed and bulged on one side with a slight crack on the other side of the bone.
malunion fracture
a large space between the displaced ends of the bone has been filled by new bone.
nonunion fracture
there is still a wide translucent space between the ends of the broken bone.
oblique fracture
a common type, usually seen in the shaft of a long bone, such as the femur, tibia or humerus.
Enlarge picture
Oblique fractures of the radius and ulna. By permission from Lamb CR, Diagnostic Imaging of the Dog and Cat, Mosby, 1993
open fracture
one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissues communicates with the site of the break; called also compound fracture. A classification system has been used which is based on the mechanism of injury and the extent of tissue damage. In type I, a bone fragment was briefly forced through the skin leaving a communicating wound; type II fractures are caused by impact and there is damage to overlying tissues and exposure of the bone; in type III, there is extensive damage and loss of overlying tissues, including shearing and degloving wounds, with loss of vascular supply.
pathological fracture
one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathological processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia or osteomyelitis.
pertrochanteric fracture
fracture of the femur passing through the greater trochanter.
Salter fracture
saucer fracture
creates a saucer-shaped fragment; caused usually by direct trauma at midshaft in a long bone. Likely to create a sequestrum.
simple fracture
closed fracture.
slab fracture
one in which a flat piece of underlying bone or tooth is separated or lost. Common in carpal bones of horses and in teeth.
spiral fracture
one in which the bone has been twisted apart.
spontaneous fracture
pathological fracture.
sprain fracture
the separation of a tendon from its insertion, taking with it a piece of bone. See also avulsion fracture (above).
stellate fracture
one with a central point of injury, from which radiate numerous fissures.
stress fracture
fracture produced by the stress created by the pull of muscles without the intervention of trauma or extreme weight-bearing.
trabecular fracture
there is no discontinuity of the bone as a whole but microscopic examination shows fractured trabeculae.
transverse fracture
one at right angles to the axis of the bone.
trophic fracture
one due to a nutritional (trophic) disturbance.
References in periodicals archive ?
Factors predisposing to distal radius nonunion are open comminuted fractures, infections, pathologic lesions, soft tissue interposition, inadequate fixation, excessive distraction with an external fixator, and a concomitant fracture of the distal ulna.
Interlocking humeral nails allow for intramedullary fixation of segmental or severely comminuted fractures, as are often seen secondary to gunshot wounds.
Simple fractures can be hard to fix, comminuted fractures can be simple to repair and both simple and comminuted can be open.
Contrariwise, disruption of the atlantal transverse ligament, comminuted fractures, irreducible fractures, fractures in patients with a short, thick neck and/or barreled chest, as well as fractures lying in oblique orientation to the frontal plane are well described contraindications for anterior screw technique.
Treatment of proximal humerus fractures with locking plates through a deltopectoral approach is an appropriate treatment for active patients with surgically indicated displaced or comminuted fractures.
Our workup, which included computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses and orbit, identified old comminuted fractures of the bilateral nasal bones and the anterior aspect of the right medial orbital wall.
Classical radiographs demonstrating the appearance of compression fractures, comminuted fractures, compound fractures, segmental fractures, spiral fractures, greenstick fractures, torus fractures, and stress fractures were examined.
Reggie King (Cape Town, South Africa) both presented studies demonstrating superiority of the CRx to slings or surgical plating for both transverse and comminuted fractures.
The Collagen Bone Healing Protective Sheet is used to maintain the relative position of weak bony tissue such as bone grafts, bone graft substitutes, or bone fragments from comminuted fractures.
9%) were located in the first portion of the facial nerve; 3 patients had comminuted fractures.
It is a reasonable alternative for AO type A fractures with greater than 66% translation and combined cortical thickness greater than 4 mm, but may not be as good an option in osteoporotic bone and comminuted fractures since this technique requires adequate cortical purchase.
Long oblique or comminuted fractures should be amenable to neutralization plating with lag screws.