collateral circulation


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col·lat·er·al cir·cu·la·tion

circulation maintained in small anastomosing vessels when the main vessel is obstructed.

collateral circulation

Etymology: L, cum + latus, side, circulare, to go around
an accessory blood pathway developed through enlargement of secondary vessels after obstruction of a main channel.
enlarge picture
Collateral circulation forming around a vessel occlusion

collateral circulation

Cardiology Blood flow that pursues a channel or system of vessels that is alternative to, or develops in substitution for, a major vascular pathway
Collateral circulation coronary artery  
Grade 0 No flow in the collateral
Grade 1 Collateral is barely apparent; dye is present in at least 3 consecutive frames
Grade 2 Collateral is moderately opaque but present throughout at ≥ 75% of the cardiac cycle; there is antegrade motion of the dye rather than diffuse filling.
Grade 3 Collateral is well opacified and the column of dye is well defined–ie, > 0.5 mm in diameter, but < 0.7 mm wide over majority of length; collateral has clear antegrade dye motion
Grade 4 Collateral is well opacified, fills antegrade, and is very large; > 0.7 mm in diameter over entire length (Am Heart J 1999; 137:169)

col·lat·er·al cir·cu·la·tion

(kŏ-lat'ĕr-ăl sĭr'kyū-lā'shŭn)
Circulation maintained in small anastomosing vessels when the main vessel is obstructed.

collateral circulation

The opening up of small shunting vessels around the site of blockage of an artery that helps to compensate for the loss of direct blood supply.

collateral circulation

second arterial supply to an area, acting as an auxiliary or main supply vessel, depending on the metabolic demands of the supplied tissue, or the patency of the main supplying artery

circulation

movement in a regular or circuitous course, returning to the point of origin, as the circulation of the blood through the heart and blood vessels. See also circulatory system.

antegrade circulation
circulation in the normal direction of flow.
artificial circulation
is maintained in cardiopulmonary arrest by cardiac compression.
collateral circulation
circulation carried on through secondary channels after obstruction of the principal channel supplying the part.
coronary circulation
that within the coronary vessels, which supply the muscle of the heart.
cutaneous circulation
cutaneous vessels are innervated by sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibers; vasodilation is an important mechanism for losing heat after the body has been warmed.
enterohepatic circulation
the cycle in which bile salts and other substances excreted by the liver in the bile are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and returned to the liver via the portal circulation.
extracorporeal circulation
circulation of blood outside the body, as through a hemodialyzer or an extracorporeal circulatory support unit.
fetal circulation
circulation of blood through the body of the fetus and to and from the placenta through the umbilical cord. See also fetal circulation.
hepatic circulation
includes the hepatic arterial blood supply and the supply from the portal vein; drainage is via the hepatic veins to the caudal vena cava.
lymph circulation
see lymph.
maternal circulation
the circulation of the dam during pregnancy, including especially that of the uterus.
micro-circulation
neonatal circulation
circulation in the newborn immediately after birth; the umbilical vessels contract forcing blood into the fetal veins; the foramen ovale closes, the ductus arteriosus narrows and eventually closes at day 1 to 2 after birth.
ocular circulation
consists of the uveal and retinal blood vessels supported by the aqueous humor and vitreous body.
placental circulation
consists of the umbilical arteries, the vessels of the placenta proper and the umbilical veins; approximates the fetal corporeal circulation in volume.
portal circulation
a general term denoting the circulation of blood through larger vessels from the capillaries of one organ to those of another; applied especially to the passage of blood from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and spleen through the portal vein to the liver.
pulmonary circulation
the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen, and back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. See also pulmonary circulation.
splenic circulation
flow of blood through the splenic artery and arterioles to either the capillaries, e. g. white pulp, or the highly permeable sinuses of the red pulp. Splenic venous blood drains into the portal vein and passes through the liver before re-entering the general circulation.
systemic circulation
the flow of blood from the left ventricle through the aorta, carrying oxygen and nutrient material to all the tissues of the body, and returning through the superior and inferior venae cavae to the right atrium.
circulation time
the time required for blood to flow between two given points. It is determined by injecting a substance into a vein and then measuring the time required for it to reach a specific site.

collateral

1. secondary or accessory; not direct or immediate.
2. a side branch, as of a blood vessel or nerve.
3. security for a loan.

collateral circulation
see collateral vessel.
collateral fissure
a longitudinal fissure of the cerebral hemisphere between the fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Called also collateral sulcus.
collateral ligaments
collateral recruitment
the utilization of many small arterial-capillary units in pulmonary tissue during exercise and increased cardiac output, for increased exchange of gases.
collateral relationship
where two individuals have a common ancestor.
collateral sulcus
see collateral fissure.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to results of this study in respect of mortality rates, patients with coronary collateral circulation have lower levels of mortality compared with patients without coronary collaterals but in respect of clinical outcomes the effect of coronary collaterals is unclear.
The fact that thrombosis does occur also explains why emergency procedures (remember, the only patients who benefit from bypass and stents are the most critical, acute patients) can be helpful immediately post-MI to restore flow in those patients who do not have adequate collateral circulation to that part of their heart.
We strongly believe that GFR values should be kept in mind when analyzing determinants of coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.
Colored Doppler revealed flows which might be compatible with the collateral circulation between the left coronary artery and right coronary artery on the interventricular septum (Figure 4).
Fluoroscopy with contrast injection revealed an occlusive (99%) thrombus at the bifurcation of the left superficial femoral and profunda femoris arteries with no collateral circulation.
The other major clinical complication of this condition may present as retroperitoneal hemorrhage as a result of ruptured collateral vessels or mass effect of the paraspinal collateral circulation.
Omentoplasty acts by increasing the collateral circulation as it contains Angiogenic factor.
Washington, Aug 20 (ANI): Scientists have uncovered the genetic architecture controlling the growth of the collateral circulation - the 'back-up' blood vessels that can provide oxygen to starved tissues in the event of a heart attack or stroke.
The patient experienced no postoperative neurologic deficit, and postoperative CTA of the brain revealed adequate collateral circulation (figure 2).

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