coeliac disease


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coeliac disease

A malabsorptive syndrome caused by hypersensitivity of intestinal mucosa to alpha-gliadin, a gluten extract composed of glutamine and proline-rich proteins that is found in wheat, barley, rye, and oats.
 
Clinical findings
Diarrhoea, copious fatty stools, abdominal distension, weight loss, haemorrhage, osteopenia, muscle atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, CNS and spinal cord demyelination (sensory loss, ataxia), amenorrhoea, infertility, oedema, petechiae, dermatitis herpetiformis (especially if HLA B27), alopecia areata. Occult bleeding occurs in half of patients.
 
Lab
Transaminases (ALT, AST) are increased in ± 40% of patients with CD, which usually normalises with a gluten-free diet; iron deficiency, anaemia due to occult bleeding.

Diagnosis
Duodenal biopsy; anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies.
 
Management
Eliminate gliadin from diet.

Prognosis
Without treatment, 10–15% develop lymphoma (e.g., immunoblastic lymphoma; less commonly, T cell lymphoma), a risk that increases with disease duration. CD predisposes to gastrointestinal lymphoma and carcinoma of the oral cavity and oesophagus; the otherwise rare small intestinal adenocarcinoma is 80-fold more common in CD.

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz')
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.

coeliac disease

An intestinal disorder caused by intolerance to the gluten proteins the gliadins, hordeins and secalins in wheat, barley and rye. The intestinal mucosa becomes infiltrated with CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes (T cells) leading to crypt hyperplasia and atrophy of the absorbing VILLI. The result is MALABSORPTION, especially of fats, with fat excretion in the stools (STEATORRHOEA). The condition is also called ‘gluten-induced enteropathy’.
coeliac disease; gluten-sensitive enteropathy autoimmune-mediated, familial, genetic and environmental tendency to small-intestine inflammation due to gluten allergy, characterized by gluten (wheat) intolerance and resultant malabsorption of food; characterized by abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss and mouth ulcers; presents at any age, predominantly affecting females, atopic individuals, those with autoimmune disease (e.g. thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease), chronic liver disease and fibrosing alveolitis; it characteristically causes dermatitis herpetiformis

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz') [MIM*212750]
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
Peter Barrow has a special interest in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), coeliac disease, oesophageal motility and endoscopic ultrasound.
Myles Fitt, Scotland Lead at Coeliac UK said: "Coeliac does run in families so it is important to be aware of the symptoms as one in 10 close relatives of people with coeliac disease will be at risk.
The symptoms of coeliac disease range from mild to severe and can vary between individuals.
If you have a family member with coeliac disease then you have a one in 10 chance of being affected.
RESEARCH released this week reveals there has been a sharp rise in the number of people being diagnosed with coeliac disease but three-quarters of them remain undiagnosed.
The experimentation led to recipes for coeliac disease sufferers and anyone who needs to follow a gluten-free diet," Areej added.
The development of food production practices and more sophisticated ingredients could so easily mean recipe adjustments to mainstream products so they are suitable for all--including people with coeliac disease.
We can now shed light on some of the precise immune disturbances leading to coeliac disease.