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A widely used adjective referring to an appearance, morphology or pattern characterised by multiple, similarly-sized rounded densities that project from a single linear surface when the image is 2-D or that rise above a flattened plane when viewed in 3-D, a pattern which has been likened to pre-infernal combustion engine roads paved with ‘cobbled’ stones
Dermatology A term which referred to a common complication of pre-1990 hair replacement surgery—now of historic interest—in which the grafts are bumpy, and do not flatten with time; it is more common in patients with a tendency to form hypertrophic scars. See Hair replacement
Gastroenterology A characteristic radiologic and gross appearance of the intestinal mucosa in Crohn’s disease, due to submucosal involvement; to the endoscopist, cobblestoning refers to the uniform nodules—due to the submucosal edema—while the pathologist refers to severe ulcerative disease with crisscrossing of the ulcers through inflamed but intact mucosa; intestinal ‘cobblestoning’ may also occur in ulcerative colitis—where ulcers alternate with regenerating mucosa, ischaemic colitis, lymphoid hyperplasia of CVID, amyloidosis, mucoviscidosis, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, multiple lymphangiomas, and polyposis coli; in the intestine, the mucosal rugosities may correspond to polyps, or be filled with air, lymphoid tissue or amyloid
(1) A term referring to a rare roughened appearance seen by colposcopy of a uterine cervix with Neisseria gonorrhoeae
(2) A finding by hysterosalpingography characterised by rounded filling defects due to intraluminal adhesions
Imaging A term referring to a bumpiness of the greater curvature of the stomach, a finding typical of chronic hypertrophic gastritis
Oral disease A term referring to multiple, closely-set intraoral papilloma-like fibromas that impart a pebbly tactile sensation in Cowden’s premalignant multiple hamartoma syndrome
Ophthalmology Multiple sharply demarcated non-elevated lesions with prominent choroidal vessels, located between the ora serrata and equator, seen in peripheral chorioretinal atrophy, common in ageing, seen in one-fourth of all autopsies, one-third of which are bilateral; aka paving stone degeneration, senile halo
Soft tissue pathology Multiple ‘hobnail’ projections of malignant endothelial cells into the vascular lumina seen in angiosarcoma, a pattern mimicked by Kaposi sarcoma and spindle cell hemangioendothelioma
References in periodicals archive ?
When estimating costs for jobs that contain cobble, contractors must be careful not to bid too low.
Froome did not even see a cobble as his Tour defence ended 12 months ago after three crashes in two days, but this time was guided expertly by the brilliant Geraint Thomas.
Total quantity or scope of tender: Take up and set aside for reuse cobble paving - 415m2
Work begins replacing a section of cobbles in Yarm High Street
For each of the tools a combination of morphometric, petrological and wear analysis data is recorded to look for evidence of a possible source for the cobbles and for any indication of selection based on shape, weight and cobble type, for evidence of primary and secondary tool use, artefact modification and usewear history (including any recycling or discard of the tool).
The architects had come across timber cobbles in Japan and they were once used extensively in places like America.
2] of cobbles to determine the number of sample plots on each cobble bar (range: 4-90).
He said: 'There were a lot of problems on the cobbles but fortunately I was well-placed, I was near the front of the cobbles and I decided to just go for it.
In the intervening years, those cobbles have damaged more car springs than the Prime Minister has had hot dinners.
If there had not been periodic overturning of the cobbles, killing the animals that were living on the top, all the cobbles would have been completely covered with Amplexopora fossils.
The last time the cobbles were tackled on the Tour, in 2010 when Geraint Thomas finished second on the stage, Frank Schleck crashed out of the race with a broken collarbone while Iban Mayo saw his hopes disappear in a puff of dust 10 years ago when the hammer went down at the front.