But in order to soundly assess these poorly controlled observations, stratification of treatment allocation of pharmacotherapy should be considered in future trials, according to the presence of concomitant enteral nutrition, to better understand the clinical implications of this co-intervention
, or head-to-head randomisation should compare enteral nutrition alone to acid suppressive pharmacoprophylaxis.
These estimates were unchanged after imputing missing data, and estimates of effect in trials with higher loss to follow-up or a possibility of co-intervention
compared with those with lower loss to follow-up and no co-intervention
did not differ significantly (p=0.
There was no known co-intervention
, and the time-period of 2 weeks between the assessments was too short for the acquisition of further experience to explain the improvement.
That factorial trial demonstrated improvement in quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area in response to exercise training--an effect that was still evident even when the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate was used as a co-intervention
Several risks of bias need to be considered, including but not limited to blinding of participants and personnel, completeness of outcome data, financial interests, compliance and co-interventions
The majority of male only trials were examining the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises with and without other co-interventions
in older men suffering urinary incontinence after prostatectomy.
2006): Quality items: A, eligibility criteria specified; B, randomisation appropriate; C, treatment allocation concealed; E, similarity at baseline; F, outcome measures and control interventions explicitly described; G, co-interventions
comparable; H, outcome measures relevant; I, adverse events; J, dropouts fully described; K, sample size based on a priori power calculation; L, intention-to-treat analysis; N, point estimates and measures of variability, presented for the primary outcome measure; O, appropriate timing giving a total score (TS) of 13 with a cut off of 10 for high quality.