Not surprisingly, the French led the fashion: the 17th century is described in France as the "Golden Age of the Enema", or clyster
, as it was called.
In one cartoon, Cardinal Fleury administers a clyster
from the rear.
1552, Cristovao Rodriguez de Oliveira refers to the existence of fifty-seven physicians (most of whom, in all probability, had not acquired their training at university); (91) sixty surgeons; forty-six apothecaries; 197 barbers (including barber-surgeons and others); twenty-five midwives; and twenty women who administered the clyster
Both when smelled and when used as a clyster
it does the same (5.
Renaissance travelers sometimes prepared to start their physical journey by purging, either by clysters
or emetics, and bloodletting (purgatio ac venae sectio).
Honey was included in clysters
for abdominal pain and jaundice, and in a gargle for sore throat (angina) (1.