Specifically, the use of a cloze
skeleton for the letter of introduction, pretask exercises designed to simplify and rehearse message composition, and the monitored mail feature inherent in the ePals system are all aspects of the project that were considered successful in minimizing pragmalinguistic breakdown.
After reading each word with the computer, the students engaged in two of the following activities during each session: (a) highlighting words when listening to a teacher direction embedded within the program, (b) saying the word into a microphone when it appeared on the screen, (c) typing the word, (d) dragging the correct word to cloze
sentences and/or passages, (e) spelling words presented by the computer, (f) dragging words from a word bank to match a scrambled word, and (g) matching the spoken form of the word to the written form.
In his article entittled Cloze
procedure : A new tool for measuring readability which was published in Journalism Quarterly (1953), Taylor had given a complete report on this test procedure both theoretically and as a technique to measure text readability.
With this in mind, I presented Jane with a passage from her set text as a cloze
exercise before providing her with the text itself.
The AIMSweb Maze (Shinn & Shinn, 2003), a standardized, curriculum-based cloze
measure, was administered to all students at posttest.
More costly and time-consuming techniques such as the Cloze
Procedure are necessary to actually measure readability.
The Passage Comprehension subtest uses a cloze
format requiring students to identify a missing word from a sentence or passage as a means of assessing reading comprehension.
This passage tests literacy by using the Cloze
Previous neurocognitive research on semantic priming has demonstrated what is known as a "low cloze
probability" (degree of expectedness) effect, in which incongruent words typically elicit negative ERP components around 400 ms following target onset (i.
These measures are oral reading fluency (ORF) and the Maze cloze
reading comprehension task (Faykus & McCurdy, 1998).
Replaying saved fragments, or sequences of fragments, may also support speech production by allowing the user to detect and repair lexical and grammatical errors and by triggering a cloze
response , helping the user to complete a phrase or sentence on the basis of context and word associations.
Van Peer hypothesised that features which experts judged to be foregrounded would be remembered better and have with a higher cloze