clomiphene citrate


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clomiphene citrate (clomifene (UK))

Clomid, Serophene

Pharmacologic class: Chlorotrianisene derivative

Therapeutic class: Fertility drug, ovulation stimulant

Pregnancy risk category X

Action

Binds with estrogen receptors in cytoplasm, increasing secretion of folliclestimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and gonadotropin in hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These actions induce ovulation.

Availability

Tablets: 50 mg

Indications and dosages

Ovarian failure

Adults: 50 mg/day P.O. for 5 days starting any time in patients with no recent uterine bleeding; or 50 mg/day P.O. starting on fifth day of menstrual cycle. If ovulation doesn't occur, increase to 100 mg/day P.O. for 5 days. Start next course of therapy as early as 30 days after previous course. If patient doesn't respond after three courses, no further doses are recommended.

Off-label uses

• Male sterility (controversial)

Contraindications

• Hepatic disease
• Organic intracranial lesions
• Uncontrolled thyroid or adrenal dysfunction
• Ovarian cyst
• Abnormal uterine bleeding or bleeding of undetermined origin
• Pregnancy

Precautions

None

Administration

• Obtain pregnancy test before therapy begins.
• Be aware that patient should undergo pelvic and eye examinations before starting therapy.

Adverse reactions

CNS: nervousness, insomnia, dizziness, light-headedness

CV: vasomotor flushing

EENT: visual disturbances

GI: nausea; vomiting; abdominal discomfort, distention, and bloating

GU: breast tenderness, ovarian enlargement, multiple pregnancies, birth defects in resulting pregnancies, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, uterine bleeding

Interactions

None significant

Patient monitoring

• Monitor patient for bleeding and other adverse reactions.

Patient teaching

Instruct patient to immediately report signs and symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal or pelvic pain, and swelling in hands or legs.
• Tell patient to report bleeding.
• Advise patient not to take drug if she is or may become pregnant.
• Inform patient that drug increases risk of multiple births, which heightens maternal risk.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions.

clomiPHENE citrate

[klō′məfēn]
a nonsteroidal drug that acts to stimulate ovulation by interacting with estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus in a manner that leads to the release of pituitary gonadotropins.
indications It is prescribed primarily for the treatment of anovulation and oligoovulation in women desiring pregnancy.
contraindications Abnormal vaginal bleeding, liver dysfunction, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions are enlargement of the ovaries, hot flashes, blurred vision, gastric upset, rashes, and abdominal pain.

clomiphene citrate

Clomid® Obstetrics An ovulation-inducing agent–'fertility drug', which acts by releasing gonadotropins from the pituitary; CC ↑ multiple gestations, and ↑ the risk–RR = 2.3 of borderline or invasive ovarian tumors

clomiphene citrate (klō´məfēn´ sit´rāt),

n brand names: Clomid, Serophene, Milphene;
drug class: nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant;
action: binds to estrogen receptors, resulting in increase of LH and FSH release from pituitary;
use: female infertility.

clomiphene citrate

a fertility drug that stimulates secretion of pituitary gonadotropin by blocking estrogen receptors in the pituitary and hypothalamus; used to stimulate ovulation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Clomiphene citrate available in 50 mg tablets, under the trade name of clomitab was used in this experiment.
N-acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial.
Clomiphene citrate and dexamethazone in treatment of clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective placebo-controlled study.
Eleven of these women took metformin alone, and 17 others took the insulin sensitizer along with clomiphene citrate.
Therefore the aim of this study was comparison of efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene Citrate along with gonadotrophins in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for intrauterine insemination cycles.
A case of CRVO secondary to clomiphene citrate has been reported.
This was a randomized, open-label, assessor-blind, parallel-group, multinational OI study of 184 women, ages 18-39 years, with anovulatory infertility WHO Group II and resistant to clomiphene citrate.
Women who have taken clomiphene citrate for fertility problems may be at a higher risk for uterine cancer.
The market is dominated by some key therapies such as clomiphene citrate, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), and follicle stimulating hormones.
fertility centers and were followed for 30 years, showed that two very specific subgroups of woman had a significantly increased number of cancers associated with treatment by the ovulation-stimulating drug clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator.
Clomiphene citrate acts as an estrogen blocker to decrease the negative feedback signals that estrogen provides to the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.
Sequential clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin with intrauterine insemination: the effect of patient age on clinical outcome.