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Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: The cloacal exstrophy experience.
Other Syndromes/Conditions with Genital Abnormalities Cloacal exstrophy Abnormal Features include of the bladder embryogenesis wide pubic causing multiorgan symphyseal pelvic defect diastasis, resulting in severe omphalocele, inadequacy of imperforate anus, absence of exstrophy of two genitalia.
Omphalocele: Some abdominal organs, covered by a thin membrane, protrude through abdominal muscles Exstrophy of the cloaca: Bladder is open in half; rectum communicates with the bladder Imperforate anus: Anus has not been formed or perforated and colon communicates with bladder Spinal defects: Babies with cloacal exstrophy may have varying degrees of a spinal defect called spina bifida
Presenting Defects of Twin A and Twin B Twin A Twin B Heart Functional single ventricle Double outlet [R] ventricle Tricuspid stenosis PDA D transposition of the great Superior, inferior ventricles arteries Coarctation of the aorta Shared pericardium VSD, PDA Shared pericardial sac Liver Midline - shared Midline - shared Own hepatic veins Own hepatic veins Neuro No defect Thoracic- lumbar myelomeningocele Arnold Chiari defect Caudal regression syndrome Renal 2 kidneys Cloacal exstrophy of bladder 1 kidney GI Gastroschisis Gastroschisis Imperforate anus
7) Schinzel et al (1979) estimated that 10% of cloacal exstrophy occur in same sex twins and suggested that multiple pregnancies and early malformations like exstrophy are related (3).
A cloacal malformation or a cloacal exstrophy could be excluded, as well as other accompanying spinal abnormalities.