Free form Clitic
Romanian mine ma Albanian mua (< mene) me New Greek (e)mena me
My corpus contains about fifty examples of clitic
pronouns accompanying the following constructions: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present, perfect and aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist and perfect participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and perfect participle.
The second way of encoding direction is through what I would like to call marking, which consists of the use of a directional morpheme tightly attached to the locative form, as an affix or a clitic
Resembling a suffix or an inflectional ending, clitics
are words that attach to the end of the preceding word: "English, for instance, has auxiliary verbs like is, has, and have, which may become clitic
to words preceding them: .
Example 5 occurred following a pause and repetition of the clitic
But the majority of the volume is taken up with the 108 charters, which have been scrupulously edited according to diplomatic principles in the sense that there is no attempt to punctuate or to introduce conventional word separation by means of the apostrophe or the clitic
For instance, within prosody, it has been suggested that there are exactly four levels of stress (weak, tertiary, secondary, and primary) and four levels of prosodic phrasing in the prosodic hierarchy (syllable, clitic
phrase, phonological phrase, and intonational unit).
It is similar to -mi in that it is a clitic
, but -man is much more limited than -mi, and in most cases it simply marks gumma protases and the apodoses of counterfactual conditionals.
ne works for direct object of transitive verbs (as in  and ) but also for some subjects of so-called intransitive verbs that take essere as auxiliary (as in  and ).
Another case is the emphatic clitic
=bu, glossed as 'again' in example (234) but as 'EMPH' in (235).
Garcia: The Motivated Syntax of Arbitrary Signs: Cognitive Constraints on Spanish Clitic
For example, the final string -nya is a frequently a clitic
pronoun 'his, her, their', as in bukunya 'her book'.