clinical depression


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Related to clinical depression: bipolar disorder, manic depression

ma·jor de·pres·sion

a mental disorder characterized by sustained depression of mood, anhedonia, sleep and appetite disturbances, and feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and hopelessness. Diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) include a depressed mood, a marked reduction of interest or pleasure in virtually all activities, or both, lasting for at least 2 weeks. In addition, 3 or more of the following must be present: gain or loss of weight, increased or decreased sleep, increased or decreased level of psychomotor activity, fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, diminished ability to concentrate, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide. See: endogenous depression, exogenous depression, bipolar disorder.

Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder. According to the World Health Organization, it is the leading cause of disability worldwide among people aged 5 years and older. About 10% of men and 25% of women experience major depression at some time in their lives. Approximately 20 million people a year suffer depressive illness in the U.S., where the negative impact of this disease on the economy is estimated at $16 billion annually. Risk factors for depression are drug or alcohol abuse, chronic physical illness, stressful life events, social isolation, a history of physical or sexual abuse, and a family history of depressive illness. Depression can be masked by substance abuse. In old people, it may be mistaken for senile dementia, and vice versa; the two may coexist. The disorder is believed to result from an electrochemical malfunction of the limbic system involving disturbances in the metabolism of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. In people with familial depression, the number of glial cells in the subgenual prefrontal cortex is significantly smaller than in mentally healthy people. Treatment with psychopharmaceutical agents, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and others, effectively controls most cases of clinical depression. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy has demonstrated some success in reversing depression. Refined methods of electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) are used in cases that do not respond to other treatment. Even in severe depression the response rate with ECT is 80% or higher. This mode of therapy has a faster onset of action, causes fewer side effects than drug therapy, and is particularly useful in elderly patients.

clinical depression

major depression

A mental disorder characterised by severe depression lasting essentially without remission for at least two weeks, with symptoms that interfere with the ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.
 
Clinical findings
Feelings of guilt, hopelessness, all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, persistent thoughts of death or suicide; difficulties in concentration, memory and decision-making capacity, behaviour (changes in sleep patterns, appetite, weight), physical well-being; persistent symptoms (e.g., headaches or digestive disorders) that do not respond to treatment; disabling episodic major depression can occur several times in a lifetime.

clinical depression

Psychiatry Persistent sadness or loss of interest in activities for ≥ 2 wks in absence of external precipitants DiffDx Grief, bereavement Clinical Changed eating habits, insomnia, early morning wakening, ↓ interest in normal activities, depressed mood, fatigue, suicidal ideation. Cf Bereavement.

Patient discussion about clinical depression

Q. I want to know what causes clinical depression? My friend is diagnosed with clinical depression. He is showing signs for the past six months. We found this when he lost interest in music which was his soul before. He lost interest in all other activities including hang out with us. We were wondering what could be the reason for the drastic change in his behavior. Very recently he stopped attending school also. We have tried to contact him but in vain. Then we got to know from his brother that he feels very low and depressed and is diagnosed with clinical depression? I want to know what causes clinical depression?

A. Any neurotransmitters imbalance in the brain can cause the mood to go down. This makes the person depressed. This can happen due to genetic impact. The social or financial difficulty can cause the disturbances in neurotransmitters, which causes depression in a person. Try to know from him whether he has any history of failures which he is hiding within him. Try to know the exact cause of depression. Depression, if left unattended, could develop in to Bipolar Disorder.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BloACoqVs1o&eurl=http://www.imedix.com/health_community/vBloACoqVs1o_cathy_tells_ppd_postpartum_depression_story?q=post%20partum%20depr&feature=player_embedded

Q. What's the difference between clinical depression that needs treating, and just regularly being depressed? I'm often depressed, and i just wondered what the difference is between just being depressed, and clinical? At what point does depression become depression?

A. It depends on the duration of the episodes, the frequency and severity. Even psychiatrists have trouble to pinpoint it. They often disagree on the “borderly” cases, here is some info on the diagnose of depression:
http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/8596/35222/362840.html?d=dmtContent

Q. What's the difference between the depressions of the bipolar disorder and clinical depression? How can I differentiate between the two? Thanks

A. When it persists past several major bouts, it is then called "chronic" and yes, from one who has it, it can go on for many years. You keep hoping that it won't come back but it hits you and you never seem to know why. After many good days, you think its gone and life will be good again and you get hope for getting off the medicine, and then out of no where, whamm, bamm and it knocks you down again, sometimes really down there with your face in the dirt. I just keep taking my medicine, pray alot, and stay away from stressful things.

More discussions about clinical depression
References in periodicals archive ?
But what was previously unclear was whether inflammation played a role in clinical depression independent of any other physical illness.
Although support groups may also be helpful in combating mild forms of depression, professional help in the form of Psychotherapy and/or antidepressant medication are generally required to successfully treat severe clinical depression.
About four to five per cent of the population suffers from clinical depression.
Notably, they did not find the same difference between groups for positive emotions-people with and without diagnosed clinical depression were equally able to differentiate between positive emotions.
I was fortunate when I came out of Shelton Hospital that I was accepted back into the community and I even ran a youth club at Ruyton XI for two years, quite an ordeal after clinical depression.
Let's not confuse clinical depression with the inability of some ministers to honour their calling to word and sacrament by trying to meet all the expectations of those among whom they serve.
In addition, many patients with clinical depression may have been un diagnosed and unmedicated.
According to the National Mental Health Association's Web site, SAD sufferers are considered those who experience symptoms commonly associated with clinical depression, such as emotional withdrawal, lethargy, weight gain and mood swings.
When girls lose their appetites, a probable culprit is clinical depression, which strikes one in five kids.
Williams' comments are reflected in the high levels of clinical depression now commonly seen in school-aged children, much of it caused by a materialistic, appetite-driven culture in which children are starved of love and attention--literally--and torn apart by divorce.
Clinical depression is a really serious illness and the fact that they didn't even take time off seems they are using the term to get themselves some sympathy.
True clinical depression is a disorder that affects from 5% to 20% of Americans during their lifetime.

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