As it develops, the immature cleptoparasite consumes the nectar-pollen provision and often the developing host larva (Godfray, 1994).
Biology, immature development, and adaptive behavior of Stelis montana, a cleptoparasite of Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).
Behavioral aspects of Hoplostelis bilineolata (Spinola) (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), a cleptoparasite
of Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera, Apidae), and behavior of the host in parasitized nests.
Ichneumonidae), a cleptoparasite
of siricid woodwasps.
This percentage is high relative to the latitudinal gradient of cleptoparasite composition of bee populations, in which larger proportions are found in more northern regions (Wcislo 1987).
Five other Nomada morphospecies captured subsequently, all belonging to the ruficornis species group and therefore probable cleptoparasites of Andrena, were determined by S.
The male then pulled the cleptoparasite
by the mandibles and legs and sometimes by the antennae, trying to remove it from inside the nest.
Females of this species are cleptoparasites
of Eufriesea and Eulaema nests (Moure, 1964).
(1) Response Wald chi- variable Parameter (d.
Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites
, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids.
Since they need to spend more time to collect and transport these materials, their prey is likely to be exposed to parasitoids and cleptoparasites
They comprise more than 200 described species, distributed into five genera (Nemesio and Rasmussen, 2011), two of which are exclusively cleptoparasites
(revision in Nemesio and Silveira, 2006a).