cleft tongue


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Related to cleft tongue: Fissured tongue, bifid tongue

tongue

 [tung]
a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing, and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue. The condition of the tongue can sometimes be a guide to the general condition of the body. glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) can accompany anemia, scarlet fever, nutritional deficiencies, and most general infections. Sometimes it is part of an adverse reaction to medication. One form of glossitis causes a smooth tongue, with a red, glazed appearance. A coated or furry tongue may be present in a variety of illnesses, but does not necessarily indicate illness. A dry tongue sometimes indicates insufficiency of fluids in the body, or it may result from fever. When the tongue is extremely dry and has a leathery appearance, the cause may be uremia.
The tongue, showing principal structures. From Dorland's, 2000.
bifid tongue a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
black tongue (black hairy tongue) hairy tongue in which the hypertrophied filiform papillae are brown or black; called also lingua nigra, melanoglossia, and nigrities linguae.
cleft tongue bifid tongue.
coated tongue one covered with a white or yellow layer of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, or other material.
fissured tongue (furrowed tongue) a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
geographic tongue a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
hairy tongue a benign condition of the tongue characterized by hypertrophy of the filiform papillae that gives the dorsum of the tongue a furry appearance. The color of the elongated papillae varies from yellowish white to brown or black, depending upon staining by substances such as tobacco, foods, or drugs.
raspberry tongue a diffusely reddened and swollen, uncoated tongue, as seen several days after the onset of the rash in scarlet fever.
scrotal tongue fissured tongue.
strawberry tongue, red raspberry t.
strawberry tongue, white the white-coated tongue with prominent red papillae characteristic of the early stage of scarlet fever; the coating desquamates, leaving a beefy red (raspberry) tongue.

bi·fid tongue

a congenital structural defect of the tongue in which its anterior part is divided longitudinally for a greater or lesser distance. See: diglossia.
Synonym(s): cleft tongue

cleft tongue

Etymology: ME, clift + AS, tunge
a tongue divided by a longitudinal fissure. Also called bifid tongue.

bi·fid tongue

(bī'fid tŭng)
A congenitalstructural defect of the tongue in which its anterior part is divided longitudinally for a greater or lesser distance.
See also: diglossia
Synonym(s): cleft tongue.

tongue

(tung)
Enlarge picture
SURFACE OF TONGUE
A freely movable muscular organ that lies partly in the floor of the mouth and partly in the pharynx. It is the organ of taste and contributes also to chewing, swallowing, and speech. Synonym: lingua See: illustration

Anatomy

The tongue consists of a body and root and is attached by muscles to the hyoid bone below, the mandible in front, the styloid process behind, and the palate above, and by mucous membrane to the floor of the mouth, the lateral walls of the pharynx, and the epiglottis. A median fold (frenulum linguae) connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth. The surface of the tongue bears numerous papillae of three types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate (or vallate). Taste buds are present on the surfaces of many of the papillae, esp. the vallate papillae. Mucous and serous glands (lingual glands) are present; their ducts open on the surface. The lingual tonsils are lymphatic tissue on the base of the tongue. A median fibrous septum extends the entire length of the tongue.

Arteries: The lingual, exterior maxillary, and ascending pharyngeal arteries supply blood to the tongue. Muscles: Extrinsic muscles include genioglossus, hypoglossus, and styloglossus; intrinsic muscles consist of four groups: superior, inferior, transverse, and vertical lingualis muscles. The hypoglossal nerves are motor to the tongue; the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves are sensory for taste. Nerves: Lingual nerve (containing fibers from trigeminal and facial nerves), glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal.

bifid tongue

A tongue with a cleft at its anterior end. Synonym: cleft tongue; forked tongue

black hairy tongue

Elongation and discoloration (brown, black or white) of the filiform papillae found on the dorsal, middle to posterior third of the tongue. It is associated with alcohol, smoking, toothpaste and mouthwash containing hydrogen peroxide, and liquid aniacids.

burning tongue

Burning mouth syndrome.

cleft tongue

Bifid tongue.

coated tongue

A tongue covered with a layer of whitish or yellowish material consisting of desquamated epithelium, bacteria, or food debris. The significance of this is difficult to interpret. It may mean only that the patient slept with the mouth open or has not eaten because of loss of appetite. If darkly coated, it may indicate a fungus infection.

dry tongue

A tongue that is dry and shriveled, usually indicative of dehydration. It may also be the result of mouth breathing.

fern-leaf tongue

A tongue possessing a prominent central furrow and lateral branches.

filmy tongue

A tongue possessing symmetrical whitish patches.

fissured tongue

Scrotal tongue.

forked tongue

Bifid tongue.

furred tongue

A coated tongue on which the surface epithelium appears as a coat of white fur. It is seen in nearly all fevers. Unilateral furring may result from disturbed innervation, as in conditions affecting the second and third branches of the fifth nerve. It has been noted in neuralgia of those branches and in fractures of the skull involving the foramen rotundum. Yellow fur indicates jaundice.
Enlarge picture
GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE

geographic tongue

A tongue with white raised areas, normal epithelium, and atrophic regions. This condition is also known as benign migratory glossitis.
See: illustration

hairy tongue

A tongue covered with hairlike papillae entangled with threads produced by the fungi Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans. This condition is usually seen as the result of antibiotic therapy that inhibits growth of bacteria normally present in the mouth, permitting overgrowth of fungi. Synonym: glossotrichia; lingua nigra

magenta tongue

A physical finding in patients with riboflavin deficiency.

parrot tongue

A dry shriveled tongue seen in typhus.

raspberry tongue

Strawberry tongue.

Sandwith bald tongue

See: Sandwith bald tongue

scrotal tongue

A furrowed and rugated tongue, resembling the skin of the scrotum.
Synonym: fissured tongue

smoker's tongue

Leukoplakia.

smooth tongue

A tongue with atrophic papillae. It is characteristic of many conditions, such as anemia and malnutrition.

split tongue

A cleft or bifid tongue resulting from developmental arrest.

strawberry tongue

A tongue that first has a white coat except at the tip and along the edges, with enlarged papillae standing out distinctly against the white surface. Later the white coat disappears, leaving a bright red surface. This is characteristic of scarlet fever. Synonym: raspberry tongue

trifid tongue

A tongue in which the anterior end is divided into three parts.

trombone tongue

The rapid involuntary movement of the tongue in and out.

bi·fid tongue

(bī'fid tŭng)
A congenital lingual structural defect in which its anterior part is divided longitudinally for a greater or lesser distance.
Synonym(s): cleft tongue.

cleft

a fissure or longitudinal opening, especially one occurring during embryonic development.

branchial c's
the slit-like openings in the gills of fish between the branchial arches; also, the homologous branchial grooves between the branchial arches of mammalian embryos.
cleft chin
occasionally seen in cattle particularly Herefords. There is a notch at the mandibular symphysis and the central incisors may be directed centrally.
frog cleft
the sagittal cleft in the frog of the horse's foot.
glottic cleft
entrance to the larynx; called also rima glottidis.
infundibular cleft
common opening of the auditory tubes in birds.
interdigital cleft
separates the hooves.
cleft lip
a defect in fusion between the central prolabium and one or both lateral mesodermal masses. Most common in dogs of the brachycephalic breeds; may be inherited or caused by environmental factors. Often combined with defects in the palate. Called also primary cleft palate, harelip, cheiloschisis.
Congenital fissure, or split, may involve the hard or soft palate. A common cause of nasal regurgitation in neonates, especially foals. Known to be inherited in some breeds of cattle and dogs, particularly brachycephalic breeds. Called also secondary cleft palate, palatoschisis.
Enlarge picture
Cleft lip (harelip) in a calf. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
cleft palate
see cleft lip (above). Also occurs commonly in diseases manifest with arthrogryposis, both hereditary as in Charolais cattle and with lupine-induced crooked calf.
Rathke cleft
see rathke's pouch.
cleft tongue
the anterior portion is divided by a longitudinal cleft.

tongue

a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue.

tongue abscess
as well as true abscesses there are pseudoabscesses, common in companion birds, which are accumulations of inspissated, keratinized, epithelial debris, caused usually by a nutritional deficiency of vitamin A.
bifid tongue
a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
bird tongue
see bird tongue.
black tongue
cleft tongue
bifid tongue.
coated tongue
one covered with a whitish or yellowish layer consisting of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, etc.
tongue cyst
see thyroglossal cyst.
tongue deformity
the tongue may be shrunken because of prior inflammation, the tip may have been torn off, e.g. in lambs by predators. There is difficulty in prehending food and in managing in the mouth so that saliva and ruminal juices drool down the chin staining skin. Called tobacco chewers.
tongue edema
caused by local obstruction to venous blood flow, most dramatically displayed in a fetus presented anteriorly but delayed in parturition because of incompatibility in size between it and the birth canal, or bee or other hymenoptera sting.
tongue frenulum
see lingual frenulum.
furrowed tongue
a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
geographic tongue
a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
hairy tongue
one with the papillae elongated and hairlike.
tongue hypertrophy
an occasional congenital anomaly in pigs.
tongue inflammation
inherited smooth tongue
see smooth tongue.
lolling tongue
one that protrudes from the mouth, usually to one side. Seen in some short-nosed dogs and as a vice in horses.
tongue lyssa
see lyssa (2).
tongue paralysis
tongue protrusion
caused by paralysis (hypoglossal nerve dysfunction), Phalaris spp. poisoning, swelling, e.g. edema, laceration.
tongue rolling
a vice in housed cattle. The animal rolls its tongue around in its half-opened mouth and may partially swallow it.
scrotal tongue
fissured tongue.
tongue vice
see tongue rolling (above).
wooden tongue
tongue worm
see linguatulaserrata.