sarcoma

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sarcoma

 [sahr-ko´mah] (pl. sarcomas, sarco´mata.)
A tumor, often highly malignant, composed of cells derived from connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessel, or lymphoid tissue; sarcomas usually develop rapidly and metastasize through the lymph channels. Different types are named for the specific tissue they affect: fibrosarcoma in fibrous connective tissue; lymphosarcoma in lymphoid tissues; osteosarcoma in bone; chondrosarcoma in cartilage; rhabdosarcoma in muscle; and liposarcoma in fat cells. adj., adj sarco´matous.
Abernethy's sarcoma a malignant fatty tumor occurring mainly on the trunk.
alveolar soft part sarcoma one with a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue.
botryoid sarcoma (sarcoma botryoi´des) an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in submucosal tissue, usually in the upper vagina, cervix uteri, or bladder neck in young children and infants, presenting grossly as a polypoid grapelike structure.
endometrial stromal sarcoma a pale, polypoid, fleshy, malignant tumor of the endometrial stroma.
Ewing's sarcoma a malignant tumor of the bone that arises in medullary tissue, usually found in cylindrical bones, with pain, fever, and leukocytosis as prominent symptoms; called also Ewing's tumor.
giant cell sarcoma a malignant form of giant cell tumor of bone.
granulocytic sarcoma chloroma.
immunoblastic sarcoma of B cells an aggressive B-cell lymphoma believed to arise from transformed interfollicular B lymphocytes, which in many cases is associated with a preexisting immunologic disorder, e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or with an immunocompromised state.
immunoblastic sarcoma of T cells a group of T-cell lymphomas comprising tumors derived from T lymphocytes in the paracortical area arising from a mixture of small lymphocytes and many large transformed cells; the latter are characterized by one or more small but distinctly eosinophilic nucleoli.
Kaposi sarcoma a multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by bluish red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet; the nodules slowly increase in size and number and spread to more proximal sites. Tumors often remain confined to skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. The condition occurs endemically in certain parts of Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and a particularly virulent and disseminated form occurs in immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 has been implicated as a causative agent.
lymphatic sarcoma diffuse lymphoma.
osteogenic sarcoma a malignant primary tumor of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of osteoid, bone, and/or cartilage formation; depending upon the dominant component, classified as osteoblastic, fibroblastic, or chondroblastic.
pseudo–Kaposi sarcoma unilateral subacute to chronic dermatitis, often with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, occurring in association with underlying arteriovenous fistula, which closely resembles Kaposi sarcoma both clinically and histologically.
reticulum cell sarcoma histiocytic lymphoma.

sar·co·ma

(sar-kō'mă),
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]

sarcoma

/sar·co·ma/ (sahr-ko´mah) pl. sarcomas, sarco´mata   any of a group of tumors usually arising from connective tissue, although the term now includes some of epithelial origin; most are malignant.
alveolar soft part sarcoma  a well-circumscribed, painless, highly metastatic neoplasm with a distinctive alveolar pattern, usually in the limbs, head, and neck of young adults.
ameloblastic sarcoma  see under fibrosarcoma.
botryoid sarcoma , sarcoma botryoi´des an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in submucosal tissue, usually in the upper vagina, cervix uteri, or neck of urinary bladder in young children and infants, presenting grossly as a polypoid grapelike structure.
clear cell sarcoma of kidney  a malignant kidney tumor similar to Wilms' tumor but with poorer prognosis, often metastasizing to bone.
endometrial stromal sarcoma  a pale, polypoid, fleshy, malignant tumor of the endometrial stroma.
Ewing's sarcoma  a highly malignant, metastatic, primitive small round cell tumor of bone, usually in the diaphyses of long bones, ribs, and flat bones of children and adolescents.
giant cell sarcoma 
1. a form of giant cell tumor of bone arising malignant de novo rather than transforming to malignancy.
2. sarcoma characterized by large anaplastic (giant) cells.
hemangioendothelial sarcoma  hemangiosarcoma.
immunoblastic sarcoma of B cells  large cell immunoblastic lymphoma composed predominantly of B cells.
immunoblastic sarcoma of T cells  large cell immunoblastic lymphoma composed predominantly of T cells.
Kaposi sarcoma  a multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation, characterized by the development of bluish-red nodules on the skin, sometimes with widespread visceral involvement; a particularly virulent, disseminated form occurs in immunocompromised patients.
Kupffer cell sarcoma  hepatic angiosarcoma.
osteogenic sarcoma  osteosarcoma.
pseudo–Kaposi sarcoma  unilateral subacute to chronic dermatitis occurring in association with an underlying arteriovenous fistula and closely resembling Kaposi's sarcoma clinically and histologically.
reticulum cell sarcoma  histiocytic lymphoma.
Rous sarcoma  a virus-induced sarcoma-like growth of fowls.
soft tissue sarcoma  a general term for a malignant tumor derived from extraskeletal connective tissue, including fibrous, fat, smooth muscle, nerve, vascular, histiocytic, and synovial tissue, with almost all lesions arising from primitive mesoderm.
spindle cell sarcoma 
1. any sarcoma composed of spindle-shaped cells.
2. a type of soft tissue sarcoma whose cells are spindle-shaped and which is usually resistant to radiation therapy.

sarcoma

(sär-kō′mə)
n. pl. sarco·mas also sarco·mata (-mə-tə)
A malignant tumor arising from bone or from soft tissues such as muscle, cartilage, fat, or blood or lymph vessels.

sar·co′ma·toid′ (-mə-toid′), sar·co′ma·tous (-təs) adj.

sarcoma

[särkō′mə] pl. sarcomas, sarcomata
Etymology: Gk, sarx + oma, tumor
a malignant neoplasm of the soft tissues arising in fibrous, fatty, muscular, synovial, vascular, or neural tissue, usually first manifested as a painless swelling. About 40% of sarcomas occur in the lower extremities, 20% in the upper extremities, 20% in the trunk, and the rest in the head, neck, or retroperineum. The tumor is composed of cells in a connective tissue matrix and may be highly invasive. Trauma probably does not play a role in the cause, but sarcomas may arise in burn or radiation scars. Small tumors may be managed by local excision and postoperative radiotherapy, but bulky sarcomas of the extremities may require amputation followed by irradiation for local control and combination chemotherapy to eliminate small foci or neoplastic cells. See specific sarcomas. sarcomatous, adj.

sarcoma

A malignancy of mesenchymal tissues—e.g., bone (osteosarcoma), cartilage (chondrosarcoma), fat (liposarcoma), fibrous tissue (fibrosarcoma), smooth muscle (leiomyosarcoma), skeletal muscle (rhabdomyosarcoma), stroma (fibrosarcoma) and vessels (angiosarcoma, KS). Certain tumours are of uncertain cell lineage, but some are specifically designated sarcomas—e.g., alveolar soft part sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma.

DiffDx
Pseudosarcomas, which are either:
1. Mesenchymal and non-malignant soft tissue lesions—e.g., fibrous histiocytoma and fibromatoses; or
2. Non-mesenchymal and malignant, most commonly spindle cell squamous carcinoma of oral cavity, anaplastic carcinoma and melanoma.
 
Prognosis
Clinical behaviour of sarcomas is determined by tumour size (e.g., > 10 cm is worse), presence of necrosis, and histologic grading (based on mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism); sarcomas in men have a worse prognosis.

Management
Wide excision; chemo- and radiotherapy are ineffective.

sarcoma  

Oncology A CA of mesenchymal tissues–eg, bone–osteosarcoma, cartilage–chondrosarcoma, fat–liposarcoma, fibrous tissue–fibrosarcoma, smooth muscle–leiomyosarcoma, skeletal muscle–rhabdomyosarcoma, stroma–fibrosarcoma, and vessels–angiosarcoma, KS; certain tumors are of uncertain cell lineage, but designated sarcomas–eg, alveolar soft part sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma DiffDx Pseudosarcomas, which are either
1. Mesenchymal and non-malignant soft tissue lesions–eg, fibrous histiocytoma and fibromatoses and.
2. Non-mesenchymal and malignant, most commonly spindle cell squamous carcinoma of oral cavity, anaplastic carcinoma, melanoma Prognosis Clinical behavior of sarcomas is determined by tumor size–eg, > 10 cm is worse, presence of necrosis, and histologic grading–based on mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism; sarcomas in ♂ have a worse prognosis Treatment Wide excision; chemo- and RT are ineffective.

sar·co·ma

(sahr-kō'mă)
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]

sarcoma

One of the two general types of cancer, the other being CARCINOMA. Sarcomas are malignant tumours of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, cartilage, fibrous tissue and blood vessels. Sarcomas are named after the parent tissue and include osteosarcoma, myosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and angiosarcoma. KAPOSI'S SARCOMA is a tumour of blood vessels.

sarcoma

a cancerous growth derived from muscle, bone, cartilage or connective tissue.

Sarcoma

A type of cancer that originates from connective tissue such as bone or muscle.
Mentioned in: Wilms' Tumor

sarcoma (sar·kōˑ·m),

n malignant tumor of the soft tissues originating in fatty, fibrous, synovial, muscular, or vascular tissue.
Enlarge picture
Sarcoma.

sarcoma 

Malignant tumour formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

sar·co·ma

(sahr-kō'mă)
Connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]

sarcoma (särkō´mə),

n 1. a malignant neoplasm of connective tissue elements.
2. a malignant neoplasm arising from mesenchyme or its derivatives.
sarcoma, ameloblastic,
n a rare mixed tumor of odontogenic origin in which the mesenchymal component has undergone malignant transformation.
sarcoma, Ewing's,
n.pr a rare, neuroectodermal malignancy of bone, caused by a translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 [t(11, 22)]. It is characterized by pain, a radiographic appearance called
onion skinning, and a histologic picture consisting of solid sheets of small round blue cells.
sarcoma, Kaposi's,
n.pr a benign neoplasm of endothelial tissues. Skin lesions appear as multiple red-brown nodules ranging from a few mm to 1 cm in size. Histologically, endothelial proliferation in sheets or small vessels, hemosiderin deposits, fibroblastic proliferation, and an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes are seen. Associated with HIV infection.
Enlarge picture
Kaposi's sarcoma.
sarcoma, neurogenic (malignant schwannoma),
n the malignant form of neurilemoma.
sarcoma, osteoblastic (osteogenic sarcoma),
n an osteosarcoma in which atypical bone formation is the most evident histopathologic feature. See also osteosarcoma.
sarcoma, osteogenic,
n a malignant connective tissue tumor that produces bone.
sarcoma, reticulum cell,
n a malignant tumor of reticulum cells. It may occur as a primary neoplasm in soft tissue or bone.
Sarcomastigophora
n.pl one of the four phyla of parasitic protozoa, to which the sarcodina and mastigophora subphyla belong. Capable of causing keratitis.

sarcoma

a tumor, often highly malignant, composed of cells derived from connective tissue such as bone and cartilage, muscle, blood vessel or lymphoid tissue. These tumors usually develop rapidly and metastasize through the lymph vessels.
The different types of sarcomas are named after the specific tissue they affect: fibrosarcoma—in fibrous connective tissue; lymphosarcoma—in lymphoid tissues; osteosarcoma—in bone; chondrosarcoma—in cartilage; rhabdosarcoma—in muscle; liposarcoma—in fat cells.

feline post-traumatic sarcoma
seen in cats, usually following injury from a penetrating injury to the eye. An orbit-destructive and sometimes metastasizing spindle-cell sarcoma develops months or years later.
feline vaccine-associated sarcoma
a rare malignancy in cats occurring in sites typically used for the injection of vaccines. There is an often rapidly growing, soft tissue swelling most commonly located over the cervical-interscapular region or thigh, which is a highly invasive tumor, usually a fibrosarcoma. Treatment by surgical resection, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may not be successful. In 1996, a Feline Vaccine-Associated Sarcoma Task Force was formed to investigate the condition and to issue guidelines for administration of vaccines and for the management of injection site masses and tumors. A causal relationship with rabies and feline leukemia virus vaccines has been found. Called also feline injection site sarcoma.
giant cell sarcoma
a malignant form of giant cell tumor of bone.
infectious sarcoma
see canine transmissible venereal tumor.
mast cell sarcoma
see mast cell tumor.
melanocytic sarcoma
melanoma.
osteogenic sarcoma
post-traumatic sarcoma
see feline post-traumatic sarcoma (above).
reticulum cell sarcoma
an old term for a form of malignant lymphoma, histiocytic lymphosarcoma, in which the dominant cell type is thought to be derived from histiocytic or macrophage origin. There is increasing evidence, however, that this neoplasm arises from transformed lymphocytes or immunoblasts.
Rous sarcoma
spindle-cell sarcoma
Sticker's sarcoma
see canine transmissible venereal tumor.
transmissible venereal sarcoma
see canine transmissible venereal tumor.
sarcoma virus
see feline sarcoma virus.
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