clavus


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Related to clavus: clavus hystericus

clavus

 [kla´vus] (pl. cla´vi) (L.)
clavus hyste´ricus a sharp, painful sensation as if a nail were being driven into the head. It is usually regarded as a conversion symptom.

cla·vus

, pl.

cla·vi

(klā'vŭs, -vī),
1. A small conic callosity caused by pressure over a bony prominence, usually on a toe. Synonym(s): corn
[L. a nail, wart, corn]

clavus

/cla·vus/ (kla´vus) pl. cla´vi   [L.] corn.

clavus

(klā′vəs, klä′-)
n.
See corn2.

clavus

See corn.

cla·vus

, pl. clavi (klā'vŭs, -vī)
A small conic callosity caused by pressure over a bony prominence, usually on a toe.
Synonym(s): heloma.
[L. a nail, wart, corn]

clavus

A corn.

clavus

; corn conical area of epidermal callosity/hyperkeratosis, directed toward the dermoepidermal junction, formed in response to mechanical trauma (intermittent pressure and friction in association with compensatory or pathomechanical forces, underlying bony prominences, shoe trauma) or certain skin conditions, causing marked local pain; may show underlying tissue breakdown in association with peripheral vascular disease or distal sensory neuropathy (Table 1and Table 2)
Table 1: Types and presentations of corn (clavus)
Corn typeName (abbreviation)Typical siteLesion characteristics
HardHeloma durum (HD)Over bony prominences and jointsDark yellow; hard central nucleus, overlain by callosity
SoftHeloma molle (HM)At base of interdigital webspace/interdigital aspect of digit, overlying an interpahalangeal jointWhite/yellow macerated hyperkeratosis; shallow, rubbery nucleus
SeedHeloma miliare (HMill)Weight-bearing skin
Areas of dry skin
Isolated or groups of tiny hyperkeratotic lesions with very hard nuclei
FibrousAreas of skin under high load
Long-standing lesions
Long-term fibrosis ties lesion to underlying tissues; difficult to resolve fully
NeurovascularHeloma neurovasculare (HNV)Areas subject to high load and torsionAs HD, plus elements of vascular/nerve tissue within the nucleus; enucleation is usually painful
Durlacher'sLateral nail sulcus of varus fifth and fourth toesLocally painful; can be overlooked as they resemble nail tissue
SubungualSubungual heloma (HSub-ung)Nail bed, below the nail plate, or encroaching under the nail platePain; local dystrophy, onycholysis and yellow discoloration of overlying nail
Table 2: Treatment regimes for hyperkeratoses
Treatment regimeComments
Physical removalCareful scalpel debridement of callosity and corn enucleation, to return the skin to normal texture for the site; the prime approach to callous reduction
Topical medicamentsPyrogallol plaster 20-40%, applied for 3 days to neurovascular corns
Wheatgerm and pyrogallol (WP) ointment, applied to deep painful corns, after enucleation, for a maximum of three applications
Salicylic acid 12% in collodion, to assist softening and subsequent scalpel removal of heavy plantar callosity
Dichloroacetic acid, applied after scalpel debridement of heavy callosity, forming a rubbery coagulum, itself debrided away 14-21 days later
Potassium hydroxide 5% solution applied to callosity and left in situ for 7 days to macerate
Urea cream 10% applied liberally each night to hyperkeratosis and seed corns associated with atrophic dry skin, and the feet wrapped in cling film (Seran) until morning
Astringents for hyperhidrosis
Antifungals for athlete's foot
Emollients for anhidrosis
40% Silver nitrate or 60% ferric chloride solution to reduce hypertrophied dermal papillae
Aluminium acetate (Burow's) solution or kaolin powder mixed to a paste in water as a compress to areas of inflammation
Thermal techniquesCryosurgery
Electrosurgery and hyfrecation
Clinical padding See Table 3
OrthosesTemporary (chairside) or permanent simple insoles or casted orthoses
AdviceOn general foot care, suitable shoe styles and hosiery, home treatments for associated conditions (such as fungal infections, hyperhidrosis, anhidrosis, emollients, as appropriate), return period and treatment frequency

Note: The treatment of hyperkeratotic lesions must reflect the patient's overall condition (general health, drug therapy, occupation, activities, age, genetic make-up, skin type), the mechanical deformation of the skin during movement, against resistance, local friction, pressure and shear stresses, and the rate of desquamation from the stratum corneum.

Table 3: Examples of clinical pads
Pad typeExamplesDescription
Digital padsPlantar bar/long propSCF pad formed to infill the plantar aspect of the shanks of lesser toes, in order to prevent/reduce overcontraction of one or more lesser toes
Dorsal barSCF pad formed to infill the dorsal aspects of one or more hammered or retracted lesser toes, to reduce trauma to the skin overlying the prominent interphalangeal joints
Dorsoplantar splintSCF pad made as a combination of the plantar and dorsal bars, to correct digital deformity/reduce trauma to the apices and dorsa of lesser toes
Interdigital wedgeSCF or foam (plain, cavitied or holed) pad formed to match the dimensions of the interdigital space to reduce reformation of an interdigital heloma molle
Dorsal proximal/distal/apical/interdigital crescentA crescent-shaped pad applied proximal/distal to the dorsal/apical/interdigital area of a hyperkeratotic lesion on a digit, to reduce local pressure and friction
Dorsal horseshoeA horseshoe-shaped pad, where the 'arms' of the horseshoe cover the dorsal aspects of toes adjacent to the digit affected by a corn, and the U acts in the same manner as a crescent pad to protect the lesion
Plantar metatarsal padsPlantar coverA pad that covers the plantar skin of the forefoot, from the webbing to a line approximately 1cm distal to the bases of the metatarsals
U'd plantar coverA plantar cover into which a U has been cut to deflect pressure away from a plantar lesion. The U may be infilled with cushioning material
Winged plantar coverA plantar cover into which semicircular cutouts have been made, to deflect pressure from the 1 and/or 5 MTPJs
Plantar metatarsal padA pad applied to the 2/3/4 metatarsals, the distal limit of which applies pressure to the 2/3/4 metatarsal heads so that the 2/3/4 MTPJs are extended and the 2/3/4 toes realigned into a more functional position; the pad will also reduce compression between adjacent metatarsal heads
Plantar barA pad similar to a plantar cover, the distal limit of which had been shaped to accommodate up to 5 U'd areas
Shaft pad/long shaft padA pad applied to an individual metatarsal to allow sagittal-plane realignment
OthersD filler
Valgus pad
A pad that is shaped to infill the plantar aspect of the medial longitudinal arch to reduce excessive pronation or ease the pain of foot strain
Hallux valgus ovalAn oval pad, with or without a central cavity or hole, that is applied to the medial aspect of the 1 MTPJ to reduce local shear stresses in cases of HAV
Heel padA pad shaped to the plantar aspect of the heel, to cushion or reduce pressure to a plantar bursitis or heel spur
Posterior heel padA pad designed to deflect pressure from the posterior lateral area of the heel, in cases with Haglund's deformity
Doughnut pad
Ring pad
Oval pad
A circular pad with a central cavity or hole applied to the plantar aspect of the heel to protect the point of insertion of the plantar fascia
Cobra padA pad that combines a medial heel wedge, a valgus filler and a medial forefoot pad, to reduce excess foot pronation
Dumbbell padA pad that combines the action of a shaft pad to dorsiflex an individual metatarsal head, and an interdigital wedge, to reduce friction and pressure at the depth of the interdigital sulcus
Achilles tendon padA pad applied to the posterior aspect of the heel, to reduce pressure and friction at the insertion of the tendo Achilles

SCF, semicompressed felt; MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; HAV, hallux abductovalgus.

clavus

a corn or callus.

Patient discussion about clavus

Q. What corn based products can I eat. I have diverticular disease. I love corn tortillas, corn bread, corn dogs.

A. The dietary recommendations for people with diverticular disease of the colon are usually to add fibers-rich foods (fruits, vegetables etc.). As far as I know corn isn't especially rich in dietary fibers, so I don't know about any recommended corn-based foods, although I don't know about any recommendations to refrain from eating corn-based foods.

If you have any questions regarding this subject, you may consult your doctor. You may also read more here:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dietaryfiber.html

More discussions about clavus
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, a further eight species belonging to the genus Clavus (Drillidae) are due to be published by Kilburn, Kantor & Fedosov (in press).
Hemelytron: Dark brown, with apex of clavus, base of cuneus, and area along base of costa becoming somewhat paler yellowish brown; clavus, base of cuneus, and basal two thirds of corium densely punctate, apical third of corium nearly impunctate.
Diagnosis: This species may be distinguished from all Tanzanian congeners by dorsal vestiture; in addition to elongate thin hairs on the hemelytra, shorter, thicker hairs are sparsely but generally distributed, including on the embolium, corium, clavus, membrane, and scutellum (Fig.
Frons uniformly colored, macropterous tegmina heavily infuscated on clavus and apical area M.
subtuberculatus "tiene menos costillas, carece de tuberculos del tipo bula, con zona ventral mas amplia en donde las costillas no son notorias, y mas bien con estrias entre los tuberculos tipo clavus ventrolaterales y sifonales", y Summesberger and Kennedy (1996, p.
The sclerotized apex of AA1 + 2 terminating at about end of clavus whereas apex of stem Cu turning diagonally anterodistad (as CuA?
Drake & Chapman (1953) expanded the characters used to describe pleids, including comparing widths of the pronotum and scutellum, the state of body sculpturing, and the form of the clavus.
Diagnosis: Female macropterous; blackish brown with red hypodermal pigment, the living individuals have tube reddish; antennal segments blackish brown except segment III brownish yellow, pale brown distally; setae brown yellowish; fore wings slightly shaded around margins and in a medial longitudinal line; clavus and sub-basal area brown.
The coral habitats of the Gulf of Papagayo are of special interest due to the high abundance of large reefs built almost entirely by Pavona clavus and Pocillopora spp.