Retention index measures how many shared characterstates in a given cladogram
are retained on the cladogram
; that is, the RI measures how well the character-states explain the cladogram
As shown in the cladograms
obtained for both unistrigatus groups, the LD (Fig.
2]) is also a homoplastic character that allows the recognition of the members of this clade (see Table 2); however, it is ambiguous concerning the optimization in the cladogram
2001) who used non-parametric rate smoothing (NPRS; Sanderson, 1997) and a single calibration point--in the Rosid clade--to date the cladogram
of Soltis et al.
The Implicit Enumeration algorithm (ie*) was employed in the search for the most parsimonious cladograms
, with Nona & Winclada used to check the most parsimonious results found with this algorithm.
Geraads (1998) noticed that convergence is highly unlikely to be achieved in a PAE cladogram
, thus recommending ACCTRAN optimization favoring reversals rather than convergences.
We analyzed relationships among haplotypes with a maximum parsimony (branch-and-bound search) cladogram
, and a neighbor-joining tree (Saitou and Nei 1987) employing 2-parameter distance estimates.
produced is your hypothesis about how these taxa are related to each other.
On the basis of cell lineages, differences between Dicyema and Pseudicyema are within the range of inter-species differences in Dicyema, as shown in the cladogram
Distance analysis resulted in a cladogram
similar to the one derived from parsimony analysis (Fig.
depicts a sister relationship between R.
Moreover, there remain controversies over the statistical technicalities of cladogram
construction, for example the utility of maximum likelihood over maximum parsimony.