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collapse(ko-laps') [L. collapsus, fallen into ruin]
Common symptoms include alterations in mental status, an inability to stand without dizziness, and/or severe generalized weakness. Physical findings include pallor, cold clammy skin, gooseflesh, a thin or thready pulse, an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, and hypotension.
A patent airway is maintained, the patient's head is lowered, and the lower extremities are elevated slightly in the Trendelenburg position to enhance venous return to the heart. Vital signs and level of consciousness are assessed for signs of shock or aspiration of vomitus. High concentration oxygen by a nonrebreather mask should be administered and oxygen saturation and ventilation evaluated. The patient should be kept warm but not hot. The patient's ECG should be monitored for arrhythmias, and an intravenous (IV) line should be established. If the patient is hypotensive, IV fluids should be given. The health care provider remains with the patient, briefly and calmly orienting him or her to surroundings and explaining procedures to provide reassurance of appropriate care.
cardiovascular collapseSee: cardiovascular collapse
Bronchial hygiene, postural drainage, and percussion are used to assist in mucus removal for those patients with atelectasis due to mucus plugging. Bronchoscopy may also be useful in these patients. Chest tubes are inserted to drain air or fluid from the pleural cavity when present.