circulation


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Related to circulation: circulatory system, Blood circulation, JACC

cir·cu·la·tion

(ser'kyū-lā'shŭn),
Movements in a circle, or through a circular course, or through a course that leads back to the same point; usually referring to blood circulation, but can apply to other commodities such as bile salts.
[L. circulatio]

circulation

/cir·cu·la·tion/ (ser″ku-la´shun) movement in a regular course, as the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels.
collateral circulation  that carried on through secondary channels after obstruction of the principal channel supplying the part.
enterohepatic circulation  the cycle in which bile salts and other substances excreted by the liver are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and returned to the liver via the portal circulation.
extracorporeal circulation  circulation of blood outside the body, as through an artificial kidney or a heart-lung apparatus.
fetal circulation  that propelled by the fetal heart through the fetus, umbilical cord, and placental villi.
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Schematic diagram of fetal circulation, with red indicating the highest level of oxygen saturation, blue the lowest, and purple an intermediate level.
first circulation  primordial c.
hypophysioportal circulation  that passing from the capillaries of the median eminence of the hypothalamus into the portal vessels to the sinusoids of the adenohypophysis.
intervillous circulation  the flow of maternal blood through the intervillous space of the placenta.
lesser circulation  pulmonary c.
omphalomesenteric circulation  vitelline c.
persistent fetal circulation  pulmonary hypertension in the postnatal period secondary to right-to-left shunting of the blood through the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.
placental circulation 
1. the circulation of blood through the placenta during prenatal life.
portal circulation  a general term denoting the circulation of blood through larger vessels from the capillaries of one organ to those of another; applied to the passage of blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen through the portal vein to the liver.
primordial circulation  the earliest circulation by which nutrient material and oxygen are conveyed to the embryo.
pulmonary circulation  the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen, and back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium.
systemic circulation  the general circulation, carrying oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body tissues, and returning venous blood to the right atrium.
umbilical circulation  fetal circulation through the umbilical vessels.
vitelline circulation  the circulation through the blood vessels of the yolk sac.

circulation

(sûr′kyə-lā′shən)
n.
1. Movement in a circle or circuit, especially the movement of blood through bodily vessels as a result of the heart's pumping action.
2.
a. Movement or passage through a system of vessels, as of water through pipes; flow.
b. Free movement or passage.
3. The passing of something, such as money or news, from place to place or person to person.
4.
a. The condition of being passed about and widely known; distribution.
b. Dissemination of printed material, especially copies of newspapers or magazines, among readers.
c. The number of copies of a publication sold or distributed.

circulation

[sur′kyəlā′shən]
Etymology: L, circulatio, to go around
movement of an object or substance through a circular course so that it returns to its starting point, such as the circulation of blood through the circuitous network of arteries and veins.

circulation

Medtalk Blood stream. See Enterohepatic recirculation, Fetal circulation, Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation.

cir·cu·la·tion

(sĭr'kyū-lā'shŭn)
Movements in a circle, or through a circular course, or through a course that leads back to the same point; usually referring to blood circulation through the network of arteries and veins unless otherwise specified.
[L. circulatio]

circulation

(sir?kyu-la'shon) [L. circulatio, encirclement]
Movement in a regular or circular course.

arterial circulation

Movement of blood through the arteries. It is maintained by the pumping of the heart and influenced by the elasticity and extensibility of arterial walls, peripheral resistance in the areas of small arteries, and the quantity of blood in the body.

assisted circulation

Use of a mechanical device to augment or replace the action of the heart in pumping blood.

bile salt circulation

Secretion and reuptake of the sodium glycocholate and taurocholate found in hepatic bile. Bile salts enter the duodenum and emulsify fats in the small intestine. They are resorbed in the terminal ileum and returned to the liver in portal blood.

blood circulation

The movement of blood through the left atrium and ventricle of the heart, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava, and back to the right side of the heart, into the pulmonary artery, lungs, and left side of the heart again.
See: artery; heart; circulatory system; vein

Broca's circulation

See: Broca, Pierre-Paul

collateral circulation

Circulation established through an anastomosis between two vessels supplying or draining two adjacent vascular areas. This enables blood to bypass an obstruction in the larger vessel that supplies or drains both areas or enables blood to flow to or from a tissue when the principal vessel involved is obstructed.
Enlarge picture
CIRCULATION OF BLOOD THROUGH HEART AND MAJOR VESSELS

coronary circulation

Movement of blood through the vessels of the heart, specifically from the ascending aorta to the epicardial coronary arteries to the penetrating arteries of the myocardium, the coronary arterioles, capillaries, veins, coronary sinus, and into the right atrium. A few of the small veins open directly into the atria and ventricles.
See: illustration

enterohepatic circulation

Circulation in which substances secreted by the liver pass into the intestines where some are absorbed into the bloodstream and returned to the liver and re-secreted. Bile and bile salts follow this pathway.

extracorporeal circulation

Circulation of blood outside the body. This may be through an artificial kidney or a heart-lung device.
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FETAL CIRCULATION
Enlarge picture
FETAL CIRCULATION: Vessels that carry oxygenated blood are red

fetal circulation

The course of the flow of blood in a fetus. Oxygenated in the placenta, blood passes through the umbilical vein and ductus venosus to the inferior vena cava and thence to the right atrium. It then follows one of two courses: through the foramen ovale to the left atrium and thence through the aorta to the tissues, or through the right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and ductus arteriosus to the aorta and thence to the tissues. In either case the blood bypasses the lungs, which do not function before birth. Blood returns to the placenta through the umbilical arteries, which are continuations of the hypogastric arteries. At birth or shortly after, the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale close, establishing the postpartum circulation. If either fails to close, the baby may be hypoxemic.
See: illustration; patent ductus arteriosusillustration

hypophyseal circulation

Superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries (slender branches from arteries of the circle of Willis) that provide blood to the pituitary gland and adjacent regions of the hypothalamus. Venous blood from the pituitary gland drains into the cavernous sinuses and, from there, into the internal jugular veins. Some of the superior hypophyseal arteries form primary capillary beds in the hypothalamus and the veins draining those beds ramify again to form secondary capillary beds in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary), thus forming a portal circulation (the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circulation). Releasing factors secreted from the hypothalamus into the primary capillary beds reach the adenohypophysis via the secondary capillary beds.

lymph circulation

The flow of lymph from the tissues into the lymphatic collecting system. Lymph is formed from the tissue fluid that fills the interstitial spaces of the body. It is collected into lymph capillaries, which carry the lymph to the larger lymph vessels. These converge to form one of two main trunks, the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. The right lymphatic duct drains the right side of the head, neck, and trunk and the right upper extremity; the thoracic duct drains the rest of the body. The thoracic duct originates at the cisterna chyli, which receives the lymphatics from the abdominal organs and legs. It courses upward through the diaphragm and thorax and empties into the left subclavian vein near its junction with the left interior jugular vein. The right lymphatic duct empties into the right subclavian vein. Along the course of lymph vessels are lymph nodes, which remove bacteria and other foreign materials, thus preventing their entrance into the bloodstream. Lymph flow is maintained by a difference in pressure at the two ends of the system. Important accessory factors aiding lymph flow are breathing movements and muscular activity.

persistent fetal circulation

Abbreviation: PFC
A condition of newborns in which unoxygenated blood is shunted from the right to the left side of the heart through the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale, resulting in hypoxemia. It is caused by pulmonary hypertension and occurs most frequently in small-for-gestational-age infants and infants of diabetic mothers.
Enlarge picture
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION

portal circulation

1. Blood flow from the abdominal organs that passes through the portal vein, the sinusoids of the liver, and into the hepatic vein before returning to the heart from the inferior vena cava. This pathway permits the liver to process and to detoxify substances entering the body from the gastrointestinal tract.
2. A portal system between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus secretes releasing or inhibiting hormones into the blood; they are carried directly to the anterior pituitary and stimulate or inhibit secretion of specific hormones.
See: Hepatic Portal Circulation illustration

pulmonic circulation

An obsolete term for the pulmonary circulation.
Enlarge picture
PULMONARY CIRCULATION

pulmonary circulation

The flow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the pulmonary capillaries, then through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. See: illustration
Enlarge picture
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

systemic circulation

The blood flow from the left ventricle through the aorta and all its arteries to the capillaries of the tissues and its return to the heart through veins and the venae cavae, which empty into the right atrium. See: illustration

venous circulation

Circulation via the veins.

vitelline circulation

The embryonic circulation of blood to the yolk sac via the vitelline arteries and its return to general circulation through the vitelline veins.
illustration

circulation

Movement in a circle or around a circuit, especially the movement of the blood through the arteries, capillaries and veins, as a result of the pumping action of the heart.

circulation

vessel system transporting arterial (to) and venous blood, and lymph (from) in all body tissues
  • systemic circulation passage of blood from and to the heart (from left ventricle though arterial, arteriolar, capillary, venular and venous networks and return to right atrium)

cir·cu·la·tion

(sĭr'kyū-lā'shŭn)
Movements in a circle, or through a circular course, or through a course that leads back to the same point.
[L. circulatio]

circulation,

n the movement of blood through blood vessels.
circulation, peripheral,
n the passage of fluids, electrolytes, and metabolites through the walls of terminal vessels of the vascular tree into and out of the tissue spaces.
circulation, pulmonary,
n the circulation of venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart.
circulation, systemic,
n the circulation of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the various tissues and of venous blood back to the right atrium of the heart.

circulation

movement in a regular or circuitous course, returning to the point of origin, as the circulation of the blood through the heart and blood vessels. See also circulatory system.

antegrade circulation
circulation in the normal direction of flow.
artificial circulation
is maintained in cardiopulmonary arrest by cardiac compression.
collateral circulation
circulation carried on through secondary channels after obstruction of the principal channel supplying the part.
coronary circulation
that within the coronary vessels, which supply the muscle of the heart.
cutaneous circulation
cutaneous vessels are innervated by sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibers; vasodilation is an important mechanism for losing heat after the body has been warmed.
enterohepatic circulation
the cycle in which bile salts and other substances excreted by the liver in the bile are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and returned to the liver via the portal circulation.
extracorporeal circulation
circulation of blood outside the body, as through a hemodialyzer or an extracorporeal circulatory support unit.
fetal circulation
circulation of blood through the body of the fetus and to and from the placenta through the umbilical cord. See also fetal circulation.
hepatic circulation
includes the hepatic arterial blood supply and the supply from the portal vein; drainage is via the hepatic veins to the caudal vena cava.
lymph circulation
see lymph.
maternal circulation
the circulation of the dam during pregnancy, including especially that of the uterus.
micro-circulation
neonatal circulation
circulation in the newborn immediately after birth; the umbilical vessels contract forcing blood into the fetal veins; the foramen ovale closes, the ductus arteriosus narrows and eventually closes at day 1 to 2 after birth.
ocular circulation
consists of the uveal and retinal blood vessels supported by the aqueous humor and vitreous body.
placental circulation
consists of the umbilical arteries, the vessels of the placenta proper and the umbilical veins; approximates the fetal corporeal circulation in volume.
portal circulation
a general term denoting the circulation of blood through larger vessels from the capillaries of one organ to those of another; applied especially to the passage of blood from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and spleen through the portal vein to the liver.
pulmonary circulation
the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen, and back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. See also pulmonary circulation.
splenic circulation
flow of blood through the splenic artery and arterioles to either the capillaries, e. g. white pulp, or the highly permeable sinuses of the red pulp. Splenic venous blood drains into the portal vein and passes through the liver before re-entering the general circulation.
systemic circulation
the flow of blood from the left ventricle through the aorta, carrying oxygen and nutrient material to all the tissues of the body, and returning through the superior and inferior venae cavae to the right atrium.
circulation time
the time required for blood to flow between two given points. It is determined by injecting a substance into a vein and then measuring the time required for it to reach a specific site.
References in classic literature ?
The ability of a country to pay taxes must always be proportioned, in a great degree, to the quantity of money in circulation, and to the celerity with which it circulates.
You should be out, whipping up the circulation like Mr.
It has a pulse, arteries, spasms; and I agree with the learned Maury, who discovered in it a circulation as real as the circulation of blood in animals.
Circulation was impeded, and everywhere disputes, discussions, and financial transactions were going on.
He had learned that Dantes had been taken to prison, and he had gone to all his friends, and the influential persons of the city; but the report was already in circulation that Dantes was arrested as a Bonapartist agent; and as the most sanguine looked upon any attempt of Napoleon to remount the throne as impossible, he met with nothing but refusal, and had returned home in despair, declaring that the matter was serious and that nothing more could be done.
Darcy soon drew the attention of the room by his fine, tall person, handsome features, noble mien, and the report which was in general circulation within five minutes after his entrance, of his having ten thousand a year.
Monsieur de Chavigny, who at heart detested the cardinal, took pains to tell the story to two or three friends, who put it into immediate circulation.
One of the men reached the camp nearly frozen to death; but good cheer and a blazing fire gradually restored life, and put his blood in circulation.
And the door closed, and the lady settled down into her corner, and the monotonous throb of the engine (making one feel as if the train were some gigantic monster, whose very circulation we could feel) proclaimed that we were once more speeding on our way.
Some of these had a wide circulation in the press, and were preserved in various anthologies.
The black drew up, with a cheerful grin upon his chilled features, and began thrashing his arms together in order to restore the circulation of his fingers, while the speaker stood erect and, throwing aside his outer covering, stepped from the sleigh upon a bank of snow which sustained his weight without yielding.
The women increase the deformity by wearing tight bandages round the ankles, which prevent the circulation of the blood, and cause a swelling of the muscles of the leg.