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limping or lameness.
intermittent claudication see intermittent claudication.
jaw claudication a complex of symptoms like those of intermittent claudication but seen in the muscles of mastication, occurring in giant cell arteritis.
venous claudication intermittent claudication caused by venous stasis.


marked by alternating periods of activity and inactivity.
intermittent claudication a group of symptoms characterized by pain, cramping, and weakness in the calf muscles of one or both lower limbs, brought on by walking and relieved by resting for a few minutes. It is a form of arterial occlusive disease and is caused by atherosclerotic lesions of the limbs, which diminish blood supply to the muscles of the lower leg. Called also angina cruris.

Treatment has traditionally involved vascular reconstructive surgery to bypass the diseased portion of the vessel. Modification of risk factors has also proved beneficial, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, and introduction of a graduated program of walking and exercise.
intermittent explosive disorder a rare impulse control disorder in which a periodic loss of control of aggressive impulses results in serious assault or destruction of property; the outbursts are totally out of proportion to any apparent stress.
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) a form of respiratory therapy using a ventilator for the treatment of selected patients with atelectasis, those needing occasional assistance breathing, or those requiring some types of aerosol medications. As the name implies, this involves application of pressure only during the inspiratory phase, in order to help the patient breathe more deeply. It is used when other less expensive, less invasive forms of respiratory care have not been effective. Called also intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

Because of their compact size and capability of operating independently of an electrical current, IPPB machines are used widely. Similar treatment can also be delivered with a volume-, pressure-, or time-limited ventilator or manual resuscitation device. The American Association for Respiratory Care has published detailed and comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for the use of intermittent positive pressure breathing, which are available online at



Pharmacologic class: Quinolone derivative

Therapeutic class: Antiplatelet agent

Pregnancy risk category C


Unclear. Thought to inhibit phosphodiesterase III by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate in platelets and blood vessels, causing vasodilation and enhancing cardiac contractility and coronary blood flow.


Tablets: 50 mg, 100 mg

Indications and dosages

Intermittent claudication

Adults: 100 mg P.O. b.i.d. at least 30 minutes before or 2 hours after breakfast and dinner

Dosage adjustment

• Concurrent use of diltiazem, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, or omeprazole


• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Heart failure


Use cautiously in:
• cardiovascular disorders
• patients receiving other antiplatelet agents concurrently
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children (safety and efficacy not established).


• Give with water 30 minutes before or 2 hours after patient consumes food or milk.
• Don't give with grapefruit juice.
• Be aware that although response may occur within 2 to 3 weeks, patient should continue therapy for up to 12 weeks or as prescribed.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, headache, vertigo

CV: tachycardia

GI: abdominal pain, abnormal stools, dyspepsia, flatulence

EENT: rhinitis, pharyngitis

Musculoskeletal: back pain, myalgia

Respiratory: increased cough

Other: infection


Drug-drug.CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inhibitors, diltiazem, erythromycin, macrolides, omeprazole: increased cilostazol blood level

Drug-food.Grapefruit juice, high-fat meals: increased cilostazol blood level

Drug-behaviors.Smoking: decreased exposure to cilostazol

Patient monitoring

• Monitor cardiovascular status.
• Closely monitor patient if he's receiving other antiplatelet drugs.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with full glass of water, 30 minutes before or 2 hours after food or milk.
• Advise patient to report nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
• Instruct patient not to smoke, because smoking impedes drug effects.
• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, foods, and behaviors mentioned above.


/cil·o·sta·zol/ (sĭ-lo´stah-zol) a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation; used in the treatment of intermittent claudication.


a platelet aggregation inhibitor.
indication It is used to treat intermittent claudication.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to this drug, congestive heart failure, active liver disease, blood dyscrasias, and active bleeding prohibits its use.
adverse effects Life-threatening effects include atrial fibrillation/flutter, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, nodal dysrhythmias, bleeding (epistaxis, hematuria, conjunctival hemorrhage, GI bleeding), agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Serious adverse effects include palpitations, tachycardia, vomiting, colitis, cholelithiasis, ulcer, and diabetes mellitus. Common side effects include vertigo, diarrhea, rash, back pain, headache, infection, myalgia, peripheral edema, cough, pharyngitis, and rhinitis.


Pletal® Cardiology An antiplatelet vasodilator used to manage intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease by ↑ blood flow to affected limbs, per improved ankle/brachial index Contraindications CHF


An antithrombotic and vasodilator drug used to improve blood supply to the extremities in people with peripheral vascular disease and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION. A brand name is Pletal.


antiplatelet and vasodilator agent used to treat intermittent claudication
References in periodicals archive ?
5 Survey on Dosage Forms of Cilostazol in China, 2010-2014
76 per cent of the cilostazol group suffered a stroke compared to 3.
In total, 108 patients who had a drug-eluting stent (paclitaxel) had 183 operations with a cilostazol bridge from 2005 to 2012.
Despite marked platelet inhibition, cilostazol does not change thrombin-mediated hemostasis, which may help explain its ischemic benefit without an increased risk of bleeding," Dr.
Cilostazol (Pletal) significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic stroke by a quarter (25.
Cilostazol is used to reduce leg pain associated with peripheral vascular disease in the United States.
Adding cilostazol "should undergo further evaluation in large, definitive, randomized controlled trials," Dr.
The CSPS II trial is a multi-center, double-blind study that found the drug cilostazol was comparable to aspirin in preventing recurrent strokes, and patients taking cilostazol were less likely to develop brain bleeding.
BALTIMORE -- Treatment with the claudication drug cilostazol was linked to a significant drop in the rate of cerebrovascular events in a post hoc analysis of data collected from more than 1,400 patients with peripheral artery disease.
Cilostazol (Pletal), an antiplatelet, is recommended as first-line therapy for claudication
The CSPS II trial is a multi-center, double-blind study investigating the efficacy of the drug cilostazol in preventing recurrent stroke and the safety of long-term administration of the drug in stroke patients compared with aspirin.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for Cilostazol Tablets, 50mg and 100 mg.