Detection of ciguatoxin
in the meal remnants is strongly suggestive of CFP but is not required for case confirmation.
can be detected in suspected fish samples by in vitro mouse neuroblastoma assay for nonspecific sodium channel toxins with any positive extracts later confirmed as specific ciguatoxins
by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Brevetoxins, like ciguatoxins
, are potent ichthyotoxic neurotoxins that accumulate in fish.
In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin
, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
We also assumed that although ciguatoxin
can survive freezing and other food preservation methods, fish are consumed around the same time (i.
Saxitoxins, brevetoxin and its derivatives, and ciguatoxin
bind to different sites of voltage-dependant sodium channels, resulting in either an inhibition or a persistent activation of the channels, with consequent increase in intracellular calcium (Kao & Walkwe 1982, Gutierrez et al.
Fishes other than shellfish, for example, often rank high as vehicles, but if vehicles associated with ciguatoxin
and scombrotoxin (which are fishborne and affect only the few persons who eat the toxigenic fish) are subtracted, the numbers drop considerably.
Sira Technologies holds the patent on a solid-phase immunobead assay (S-PIA) that has been used successfully in detecting ciguatoxin
and okadaic acid.
The majority of problems were related to two specific cases: consumption of raw molluskan shellfish and consumption of tropical fish which are associated with the naturally occurring ciguatoxin
and scombrotoxin poisons.
The pathogen-commodity pairs responsible for the most outbreaks were Campylobacter in unpasteurized dairy (17 outbreaks), Salmonella in eggs and STEC O157 in beef (15 each), ciguatoxin
in fish (12), and scombroid toxin (histamine fish poisoning) in fish (10).
Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin
analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA).
mexicanum, produce ciguatoxin
, which accumulates in tropical finfish food chains and renders apex predators unfit for human consumption (Steidinger, 1983).