chronic renal failure
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chronic renal failure (CRF)
gradual loss of kidney function, with progressively more severe renal insufficiency until the stage called chronic irreversible kidney failure or end-stage renal disease. Symptoms may include polyuria, anorexia or nausea, dehydration, and neurological symptoms. See also renal failure.
chronic renal failureA spectrum of severe renal diseases ranging from non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in patients don’t require renal replacement therapy (i.e., dialysis or renal transplant), to those with end-stage kidney disease who do.
Diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis.
Clinical findings, external
Dehydration, oedema, anaemia, sallow colour, pruritis, brown discolouration of nails, bruising (abnormal platelets); other findings may include cutaneous vasculitic lesions, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, spina bifida or other causes of neurogenic bladder.
Clinical findings, internal
Hypertension, heart failure, pulmonary oedema, pleural effusions, pericardial effusion, GI bleeding due to peptic ulceration, gastritis/oesophagitis/colitis, acute pancreatitis.
Cause of death, chronic renal failure
• Cardiac myocyte dysfunction;
• Congestive heart failure;
• Pericardial effusion;
• Left ventricular hypertrophy;
• Coronary artery disease.
• Renal cell carcinoma;
• Hepatocellular carcinoma;
• Thyroid carcinoma.