The case being reported had SCC of renal pelvis presenting as hydronephrosis and chronic pyelonephritis in the absence of renal calculi and other predisposing factors.
The sections from various representative areas revealed dilated pelvicalyceal system lined by metaplastic squamous epithelium and shows changes of chronic pyelonephritis (Fig 2).
Chronic pyelonephritis denotes chronic inflammation and the associated tissue injury involving not only the renal parenchyma but also the pyelocaliceal system.
The diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis is suggested in the presence of "significant" chronic inflammation of both renal parenchyma and the pyeolocaliceal system (Figure 2, E).
dagger]) Including any of the following diseases: asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, human immunodeficiency virus infection, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, endocarditis, tuberculosis, prostatitis, chronic urinary tract infection, chronic osteomyelitis, peptic ulcer disease, chronic pyelonephritis
Histopathology revealed chronic pyelonephritis
with no evidence of malignancy.
Further work by Marcussen and others (6-9) has shown that atubular glomeruli constitute a significant portion of the glomerular population in many chronic kidney diseases in humans such as chronic pyelonephritis
, chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic ischemia secondary to renal artery sclerosis, as well as in animal models of renal disease.
Other causes of renal failure included hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis
, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, and HIV nephropathy (only one of six patients tested was HIV seropositive).