and circulatory syndrome in a white leghorn strain induced by an avian leukosis virus: light and electron microscopic study.
This disease is a precursor to 10%-20% of chronic myocarditis cases and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is a leading cause of heart transplantation worldwide (2).
As a result, low replicative terminally deleted viral forms could be generated and selected in heart tissues during the early acute viral replication phase (myocarditis) and could establish an ongoing persistent human cardiac infection leading to chronic myocarditis and the DCM clinical phase.
Although the majority of EV infections remain asymptomatic, these viruses, especially group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), are considered to be a common cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis
cases as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, prevalence = 7 cases / 100,000, second leading cause of heart transplantation worldwide after ischemic heart disease).
In majority of the cases where insult to myocardium is limited, the heart function recovers within a few months, but in cases with more extensive myocardial insult, chronic myocarditis may develop.
16 Chronic myocarditis can be labelled so if it persists for more than 3 months.
Histologic examination of the explanted heart otherwise showed the usual severe chronic myocarditis
characteristic of this disease (Figure, 1A), most extensively involving the left ventricle.
An acute viral myocarditis may evolve into chronic myocarditis
, leading to a dilated cardiomyopathy in an individual with the above defect.
Delayed gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with chronic myocarditis
presenting with heart failure or recurrent arrhythmias.
1987) (30) succeeded on enhancing chronic myocarditis
, in dogs chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (T.
These results indicate that persistence of virus alone is not the determining factor in the development of chronic myocarditis
Certain cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-[alpha], but not viral replication, correlate with cardiac inflammation and can overcome resistance to chronic myocarditis