Inflammation

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inflammation

 [in″flah-ma´shun]
a localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue. adj., adj inflam´matory.  

The inflammatory response can be provoked by physical, chemical, and biologic agents, including mechanical trauma, exposure to excessive amounts of sunlight, x-rays and radioactive materials, corrosive chemicals, extremes of heat and cold, or by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and other pathogenic microorganisms. Although these infectious agents can produce inflammation, infection and inflammation are not synonymous.

The classic signs of inflammation are heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function. These are manifestations of the physiologic changes that occur during the inflammatory process. The three major components of this process are (1) changes in the caliber of blood vessels and the rate of blood flow through them (hemodynamic changes); (2) increased capillary permeability; and (3) leukocytic exudation.

Hemodynamic changes begin soon after injury and progress at varying rates, according to the extent of injury. They start with dilation of the arterioles and the opening of new capillaries and venular beds in the area. This causes an accelerated flow of blood, accounting for the signs of heat and redness. Next follows increased permeability of the microcirculation, which permits leakage of protein-rich fluid out of small blood vessels and into the extravascular fluid compartment, accounting for the inflammatory edema.

Leukocytic exudation occurs in the following sequence. First, the leukocytes move to the endothelial lining of the small blood vessels (margination) and line the endothelium in a tightly packed formation (pavementing). Eventually, these leukocytes move through the endothelial spaces and escape into the extravascular space (emigration). Once they are outside the blood vessels they are free to move and, by chemotaxis, are drawn to the site of injury. Accumulations of neutrophils and macrophages at the area of inflammation act to neutralize foreign particles by phagocytosis.

Chemical mediators of the inflammatory process include a variety of substances originating in the plasma and the cells of uninjured tissue, and possibly from the damaged tissue. The major kinds of mediators are (1) vasoactive amines, such as histamine and serotonin; (2) plasma endopeptidases that comprise three interrelated systems, the kinin system that produces bradykinin, the complement system that produces proteins that interact with antigen--antibody complexes and mediate immunologic injury and inflammation, and the clotting system that increases vascular permeability and chemotactic activity for the leukocytes; (3) prostaglandins, which can reproduce several aspects of the inflammatory process; (4) neutrophil products; (5) lymphocyte factors; and (6) other mediators, such as slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis and endogenous pyrogen.

Hormonal Response. Some hormones, such as cortisol, have an antiinflammatory action that limits inflammation to a local reaction while others are proinflammatory. Thus, the endocrine system has a regulatory effect on the process of inflammation so that it can be balanced and beneficial in the body's attempts to recover from injury.
Cellular changes in inflammation. 1, Margination of neutrophils brings these inflammatory cells in close contact with the endothelium. 2, Adhesion of platelets results in the release of mediators of inflammation and coagulation. Fibrin strands are the first signs of clot formation. 3, Pavementing of leukocytes is mediated by adhesion molecules activated by the mediators of inflammation released from platelets and leukocytes. RBC, red blood cells. From Damjanov, 2000.
acute inflammation inflammation, usually of sudden onset, marked by the classical signs of heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function, and in which vascular and exudative processes predominate.
catarrhal inflammation a form affecting mainly a mucous surface, marked by a copious discharge of mucus and epithelial debris.
chronic inflammation prolonged and persistent inflammation marked chiefly by new connective tissue formation; it may be a continuation of an acute form or a prolonged low-grade form.
exudative inflammation one in which the prominent feature is an exudate.
fibrinous inflammation one marked by an exudate of coagulated fibrin.
granulomatous inflammation a form, usually chronic, attended by formation of granulomas.
interstitial inflammation inflammation affecting chiefly the stroma of an organ.
parenchymatous inflammation inflammation affecting chiefly the essential tissue elements of an organ.
productive inflammation (proliferative inflammation) one leading to the production of new connective tissue fibers.
pseudomembranous inflammation an acute inflammatory response to a powerful necrotizing toxin (such asdiphtheria toxin), characterized by formation on a mucosal surface of a false membrane composed of precipitated fibrin, necrotic epithelium, and inflammatory leukocytes.
purulent inflammation suppurative inflammation.
serous inflammation one producing a serous exudate.
subacute inflammation a condition intermediate between chronic and acute inflammation, exhibiting some of the characteristics of each.
suppurative inflammation one marked by pus formation.
toxic inflammation one due to a poison, e.g., a bacterial product.
traumatic inflammation one that follows a wound or injury.
ulcerative inflammation that in which necrosis on or near the surface leads to loss of tissue and creation of a local defect (ulcer).

in·flam·ma·tion

(in'flă-mā'shŭn), Avoid the misspelling inflamation.
A fundamental pathologic process consisting of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent, including the local reactions and resulting morphologic changes; the destruction or removal of the injurious material; and the responses that lead to repair and healing. The so-called cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor, redness; calor, heat (or warmth); tumor, swelling; and dolor, pain; a fifth sign, functio laesa, inhibited or lost function, is sometimes added. All these signs may be observed in certain instances, but none is necessarily always present.
[L. inflammo, pp. -atus, fr. in, in, + flamma, flame]

inflammation

/in·flam·ma·tion/ (in″flah-ma´shun) a protective tissue response to injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissues. The classical signs of acute inflammation are pain (dolor), heat (calor), redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), and loss of function (functio laesa).inflam´matory
acute inflammation  inflammation, usually of sudden onset, marked by the classical signs (see inflammation ), in which vascular and exudative processes predominate.
catarrhal inflammation  a form affecting mainly a mucous surface, marked by a copious discharge of mucus and epithelial debris.
chronic inflammation  prolonged and persistent inflammation marked chiefly by new connective tissue formation; it may be a continuation of an acute form or a prolonged low-grade form.
exudative inflammation  one in which the prominent feature is an exudate.
fibrinous inflammation  one marked by an exudate of coagulated fibrin.
granulomatous inflammation  a form, usually chronic, marked by granuloma formation.
hyperplastic inflammation  one leading to the formation of new connective tissue fibers.
interstitial inflammation  one affecting chiefly the stroma of an organ.
parenchymatous inflammation  one affecting chiefly the essential tissue elements of an organ.
plastic inflammation , productive inflammation, proliferous inflammation hyperplastic i.
pseudomembranous inflammation  an acute inflammatory response to a powerful necrotizing toxin, e.g., diphtheria toxin, with formation, on a mucosal surface, of a false membrane composed of precipitated fibrin, necrotic epithelium, and inflammatory white cells.
purulent inflammation  suppurative i.
serous inflammation  one producing a serous exudate.
subacute inflammation  a condition intermediate between chronic and acute inflammation, exhibiting some of the characteristics of each.
suppurative inflammation  one marked by pus formation.
ulcerative inflammation  that in which necrosis on or near the surface leads to loss of tissue and creation of a local defect (ulcer).

inflammation

(ĭn′flə-mā′shən)
n.
1. The act of inflaming or the state of being inflamed.
2. A localized protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, characterized by pain, redness, swelling, and sometimes loss of function.

inflammation

Etymology: L, inflammare, to set afire
the protective or destructive response of body tissues to irritation or injury. Inflammation may be acute or chronic. Its cardinal signs are redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), and pain (dolor), often accompanied by loss of function. The process begins with a transitory vasoconstriction, then is followed by a brief increase in vascular permeability. The second stage is prolonged and consists of sustained increase in vascular permeability, exudation of fluids from the vessels, clustering of leukocytes along the vessel walls, phagocytosis of microorganisms, deposition of fibrin in the vessel, disposal of the accumulated debris by macrophages, and finally migration of fibroblasts to the area and development of new, normal cells. The severity, timing, and local character of any particular inflammatory response depend on the cause, the area affected, and the condition of the host. Histamine, kinins, and various other substances mediate the inflammatory process. inflammatory, adj.

inflammation

A response to injury which is characterized by pain, swelling, heat, redness, and/or loss of function. See Round cellinflammation.

in·flam·ma·tion

(in'flă-mā'shŭn)
A fundamental, stereotyped complex of cytologic and chemical reactions that occur in affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent. Redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), and pain (dolor) are signs generally associated with inflammation.
[L. inflammo, pp. -atus, fr. in, in, + flamma, flame]

inflammation

The response of living tissue to injury, featuring widening of blood vessels, with redness, heat, swelling and pain-the cardinal signs ‘rubor’, ‘calor’, ‘tumor’ and ‘dolor’ of the first century physician Celsus. Inflammation also involves loss of function and is the commonest of all the disease processes. It is expressed by the ending ‘-itis’. Inflammation involves release of PROSTAGLANDINS which strongly stimulate pain nerve endings. It is, in general, protective and assists the immune system to restore normality, but persistent (chronic) inflammation may lead to the formation of undesirable scar tissue.

inflammation

a local response to injury or damage, by which HISTAMINES are released that trigger a number of effects including dilation of blood vessels, and the invasion of blood proteins, blood fluid and LEUCOCYTES into the tissues to combat invading bacteria.

Inflammation

The body's immune reaction to presumed foreign substances like germs. Inflammation is characterized by increased blood supply and activation of defense mechanisms. It produces redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

inflammation

from the Latin inflammare , to set on fire. The term for the pathological process that occurs at the site of tissue damage; a process that enables the body's defensive and regenerative resources to be channelled into tissues which have suffered damage or are contaminated with abnormal material (such as invading micro-organisms). It also tends to limit the damaging effects of any contamination, to cleanse and remove foreign particles and damaged tissue debris, and allows healing processes to restore tissues towards normality. Fundamentally important for survival. The classic components of the inflammatory response are heat, redness, swelling and pain.

inflammation

normal pathological process provoked by actual, or threat of imminent physical, chemical or biological injury; mediated by a series of cellular and biochemical reactions in affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues; characterized by five classic signs - calor (heat), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function), all/some of which are noted in inflamed tissue

inflammation (in·fl·māˑ·shn),

n response of bodily tissues to a chemical or physical injury indicated by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.

inflammation

A complex reaction that occurs in response to injury, infection, irritation, toxicity or hypersensitivity. The reaction is characterized by redness, heat, pain and swelling to different degrees. Treatment depends on the cause. See antiinflammatory drug; infection.

in·flam·ma·tion

(in'flă-mā'shŭn) Avoid the misspelling inflamation.
Fundamental pathologic process consisting of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent.
[L. inflammo, pp. -atus, fr. in, in, + flamma, flame]

inflammation (in´fləmā´shən),

n the cellular and vascular response or reaction to injury. Inflammation is characterized by pain, redness, swelling, heat, and disturbance of function. It may be acute or chronic. The term is not synonymous with
infection, which implies an inflammatory reaction initiated by invasion of living organisms.
inflammation, gingival,
inflammation, granulomatous,
n a chronic inflammation in which there is formation of granulation tissue.
inflammation, periodontal,

inflammation

a localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue.
The inflammatory response can be provoked by physical, chemical and biological agents, including mechanical trauma, exposure to excessive amounts of sunlight, x-rays and radioactive materials, corrosive chemicals, extremes of heat and cold, and infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms. Although these infectious agents can produce inflammation, infection and inflammation are not synonymous.
The classic signs of inflammation are heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function. These are manifestations of the physiological changes that occur during the inflammatory process. The three major components of this process are: (1) changes in the caliber of blood vessels and the rate of blood flow through them (hemodynamic changes); (2) increased capillary permeability; and (3) leukocytic exudation.

acute inflammation
inflammation, usually of sudden onset, marked by the classic signs of heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function, and in which vascular and exudative processes predominate.
adhesive inflammation
promotes adhesion of adjacent surfaces.
atrophic inflammation
one that causes atrophy and deformity.
catarrhal inflammation
a form affecting mainly a mucous surface, marked by a copious discharge of mucus and epithelial debris.
chronic inflammation
prolonged and persistent inflammation marked chiefly by new connective tissue formation; it may be a continuation of an acute form or a prolonged low-grade form.
chronic inflammation bowel disease of sheep
a syndrome of unknown etiology, manifest with wasting, ill thrift and mortality or culling for poor production. Reported in England and Canada, it affects both housed and pastured sheep, predominantly in their first year of life, but cases up to three years-of-age have been seen. Affected sheep are dull and anorectic with pale mucous membranes and have fecal staining of the perineum. The rumen fill is reduced and the feces are soft and malodorous. Blood examination shows hypoalbuminemia, an elevated blood urea nitrogen and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. On postmortem there is a lymphocytic enteritis with gross thickening of segments or the entire or distal part of the small intestine. There is no evidence for Johne's disease or parasitic gastroenteritis and the syndrome has similarities to the proliferative enteropathies of swine and horses.
croupous inflammation
a homogeneous layer of exudate lying close to but detached from the underlying inflamed tissue, which is comparatively unharmed; may form a fibrinous cast.
diphtheritic inflammation
manifested by the development of a fibrinous exudate which is firmly attached to the underlying tissue, such that it cannot be removed except by tearing off a superficial layer.
exudative inflammation
one in which the prominent feature is an exudate.
fibrinous inflammation
one marked by an exudate of coagulated fibrin.
fibrous inflammation
leads to the development of fibrous tissue.
granulomatous inflammation
a form, usually chronic, attended by formation of granulomas.
hyperplastic inflammation
leads to the development of new connective tissue.
hypertrophic inflammation
leading to the enlargement of the affected tissues.
interstitial inflammation
inflammation affecting chiefly the stroma of an organ.
obliterative inflammation
inflammation within a vessel or viscus leading to occlusion of the lumen.
parenchymatous inflammation
inflammation affecting chiefly the essential tissue elements of an organ.
productive inflammation, proliferative inflammation
one leading to the production of new connective tissue fibers.
pseudomembranous inflammation
an acute inflammatory response to a powerful necrotizing toxin, e.g. Fusobacterium necrophorum toxin, characterized by formation on a mucosal surface of a false membrane composed of precipitated fibrin, necrotic epithelium and inflammatory leukocytes. See also diphtheritic inflammation (above).
purulent inflammation
suppurative inflammation.
serous inflammation
one producing a serous exudate.
specific inflammation
one due to a particular microorganism.
systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS)
a generalized inflammatory response with vasodilation of capillaries and postcapillary venules, increased permeability of capillaries, and hypovolemia. Depressed cardiac function and decreased organ perfusion follow. The various initiating stimuli include sepsis and septic shock, hyperthermia, pancreatitis, trauma, snake bite and immune-mediated diseases.
toxic inflammation
one due to a poison, e.g. a bacterial product.
traumatic inflammation
one that follows a wound or injury.
ulcerative inflammation
that in which necrosis on or near the surface leads to loss of tissue and creation of a local defect or ulcer.

Patient discussion about Inflammation

Q. What causes inflammation of the knee joint?

A. It depends on many things - the age of the person, other diseases he or she may have, whether he experienced any trauma to the joint, drugs or other substances he or she uses. Generally speaking, it may be caused by an infection (usually after trauma, very painful and abrupt inflammation, necessitates rapid treatment), rheumatologic diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis or others, reaction to drugs or as a feature of other diseases.

You may read more here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthritis

Q. what is fragments of endocervical glandular mucosa with inflammation and squamous metaplasia fragments of endocervical glandular mucosa

A. It means that part of the mucose on the cervix area has changes from a certain kind of mucose cells to another, and that there is a bit of an inflammation around it. This should be brought to the knowledge of a gynecologist and be monitored by him/her.

Q. Does anyone know how to relieve chronic back pain due to inflammation and arthritis? I have tried OTC arthritis pain meds they don't offer much relief for me. I have had surgery for herniated disc. My doctor says that there is a lot of inflammation and arthritis in my back. You can't get Vioxx anymore. Is there an alternative?

A. there also is a drug called diclofenac(cataflam) ask your DR.

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