chronic infection


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Related to chronic infection: Latent infection

chron·ic in·fec·tion

(kron'ik in-fek'shŭn)
Any prolonged or persistent invasion of the body by pathogens.

chronic infection

An infection having a protracted course.
See also: infection

chronic infection

infection of long duration, characterized by a lesser degree of inflammation and reduced immune response

infection

1. invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen-antibody response.
2. an infectious disease.

acute infection
short duration, of the order of several days.
airborne infection
infection by inhalation of organisms suspended in air on water droplets or dust particles.
arrested infection
restrained in its development by a capsule or adhesion but still containing infective material.
chronic infection
long duration, of the order of weeks or months.
infection control
the utilization of procedures and techniques in the surveillance, investigation and compilation of statistical data in order to reduce the spread of infection, particularly nosocomial infections.
cross infection
infection transmitted between patients infected with different pathogenic microorganisms.
droplet infection
infection due to inhalation of respiratory pathogens suspended on liquid particles exhaled by an animal that is already infected.
dustborne infection
infection by inhalation of pathogens that have become affixed to particles of dust.
endogenous infection
that due to reactivation of organisms present in a dormant focus, as occurs in tuberculosis, etc.
exogenous infection
that caused by organisms not normally present in the body but which have gained entrance from the environment.
general infection
see systemic infection (below).
latent infection
the animal is infected but there are no clinical signs nor infectious agent detectable in discharges.
local infection
has a common syndrome of varying degree, depending on the site and acuteness of the lesion and the type of microorganisms present, including fever, toxemia and leukocytosis with a left shift. The specific individual signs relate to the location of the lesion and the pressure it exerts on nearby organs. See also abscess, cellulitis, phlegmon, osteomyelitis, omphalophlebitis, empyema, adenitis, metritis, mastitis, periphlebitis.
masked infection
an infection is known to occur but the infectious agent cannot be demonstrated, e.g. the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus.
mixed infection
infection with more than one kind of organism at the same time.
nosocomial infection
pertaining to or acquired in hospital.
opportunistic infection
infection with organisms which are normally harmless but become pathogenic when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised.
patent infection
one in which the infectious agent can be demonstrated in discharges of the patient.
persistent infection
a characteristic of some viruses, particularly herpesviruses and lentiviruses, in which there may be long-lasting or life-long latent infections, with asymptomatic periods and recurring acute episodes of clinical disease (herpesviruses) or onset of severe clinical disease (lentiviruses).
pyogenic infection
infection by pus-producing organisms.
secondary infection
infection by a pathogen following an infection by a pathogen of another kind.
infection stones
see struvite urolith.
subclinical infection
infection associated with no detectable signs but caused by microorganisms capable of producing easily recognizable diseases, such as mastitis or brucellosis; often detected by the production of antibody, or by delayed hypersensitivity exhibited in a skin test reaction to such antigens as tuberculoprotein.
super infection
a second infection occurs in an animal which is already experiencing an infection with another agent.
systemic infection
the infection is widespread throughout the body and must be assumed to be in all organs.
terminal infection
an acute infection occurring near the end of a disease and often causing death.
transmissible infection
an infection capable of being transmitted from one animal to another. Called also contagious.
waterborne infection
infection by microorganisms transmitted in water.
References in periodicals archive ?
Stunningly, the respite also reversed many of the immune problems that result from chronic infection, such as a rise in proteins that suppress immune response, continuous activation of the immune system and disruption of lymph tissue.
Most Strongyloides infections in organ transplant recipients are thought to be caused by reactivation of chronic infection after initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.
Patients with chronic infection should be counseled about risks of transmission and techniques to reduce risks to contacts.
Chronic infection develops in 90% of children infected perinatally, 60% of those infected before 2 years of age, and 25% of those infected at 2-9 years, so an estimated 12,100 chronic infections would have developed without routine immunization.
Bacteria that lacked these enzymes were unable to establish a chronic infection in a mouse model.
1 However, it is important to note that these ears were not inflamed and that these patients had no history of chronic infection.
The 32% of participants who met standard diagnostic criteria for chronic infection--at respiratory urinary, dental, or other common sites--had an adjusted fourfold increased risk of developing new carotid plaques during follow-up, compared with those with no chronic infections.
For example: ``Tuberculosis is a chronic infection, usually affecting the lungs, transmitted by inhalation of infected airborne droplets.
An early epidemiological model proposed per-contact infectivity to be 100 to 1000 times higher during PHI than during chronic infection.
Several species of the parasite cause skin lesions or ulcerations, which can last for months, while other species cause chronic infection that leads to visceral or internal organ damage to the body, and when untreated, can cause severe illness and death.
The source-patient had been transferred from another center where he was known to have chronic infection, but his serologic status had not been reviewed on admission to center A.
For example, DNA vaccines may be better in stimulating cellular immunity necessary to fight chronic infection or diseases such as cancer.

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