chromosomal aberration


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Related to chromosomal aberration: aneuploidy, gene mutation

chromosomal aberration

[-sō′məl]
Etymology: Gk, chroma + soma, body; L, aberrare, to wander
any change in the structure or number of any of the chromosomes of a given species. In humans, a number of physical disabilities and disorders are directly associated with aberrations of both the autosomes and the sex chromosomes, including Down, Turner's, and Klinefelter's syndromes. The incidence of most chromosomal disorders is significantly higher than that of single-gene disorders. See also trisomy.

chromosomal aberration

An abnormality in chromosomes regarding number (aneuploidy, polyploidy) or chromosomal material (translocation, deletion, duplication).
See also: aberration

chromosomal

emanating from or pertaining to chromosome.

chromosomal aberration
see chromosomal abnormality (below).
chromosomal abnormality
abnormal karyotype; abnormalities can be detected before birth by means of amniocentesis, or after birth, but many are probably never observed because they cause death and disposal of the fetus. The abnormalities are either of number, or of composition of the individual chromosomes. Monosomy and trisomy are examples of numerical abnormalities. Translocations are examples of abnormalities of structure where parts of one chromosome have been transferred to another. The cause of these abnormalities is not known. Their importance is that many of them are linked with structural or functional defects of the animal body. The best known ones in veterinary medicine are those that are related to infertility, e.g. translocation 1/29, translocation 27/29.
chromosomal analysis
fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis or lymphocytes from a blood sample can be cultured in the laboratory until they divide. Cell division is arrested in mid-metaphase by the drug Colcemid, a derivative of colchicine. The chromosomes can be stained by one of several techniques that produce a distinct pattern of light and dark bands along the chromosomes, and each chromosome can be recognized by its size and banding pattern. The chromosomal characteristics of an animal are referred to as its karyotype. This also refers to a photomicrograph of a cell nucleus that is cut apart and rearranged so that the individual chromosomes are in order and labeled. The autosomes are numbered roughly in order of decreasing length. The sex chromosomes are labeled X and Y. Karyotyping is useful in determining the presence of chromosome defects.
chromosomal banding
see banding (2).
chromosomal chimerism
see chimera.
chromosomal crossover
chromosomal deletion
in genetics, loss from a chromosome of genetic material.
chromosomal inversion
see inversion (2).
chromosomal linkage
see linkage (2).
chromosomal mapping
see genetic map.
chromosomal non-disjunction
failure of the chromatids or chromosomes to separate (disjoin) during meiosis.
chromosomal replication
chromosomal walking
a technique for identification and isolation of contiguous sequences of genomic DNA.
chromosomal X inactivation
only one of a pair of female (X) chromosomes in the one cell is active, the other is inactivated.
References in periodicals archive ?
The measure for genomic damage was the frequency of micronuclei, a subset of chromosomal aberrations, in peripheral lymphocytes.
Mechanisms of the origin of chromosomal aberrations.
Table 1: Frequency of chromosomal aberrations in Imidazole treated cells No.
DO: Dissolved oxygen; BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand; TDS: Total Dissolved Solid; TSS: Total Suspended Solid, TS: Total Solid, Cd: Cadmium, Cr: Chromium, Pb: Lead, Ni: Nickel, Zn: Zinc, Fe: Iron Table 4: Types and frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by aqueous extracts of the three vegetables used for the study Concentration C- Chromosome Sticky mitosis bridge chromosome Control 0 0 0 0.
Although most of uterine leiomyomas have a normal karyotype, reports suggest that 50% of these tumors bear specific chromosomal aberrations that include chromosome 3, 6, 7, 13, trisomy 12, reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 12 and 14 and monosomy 22.
Though chromosomal aberrations were not significant in our patients exposed to organic chemicals (benzene), inorganic dusts (asbestos), and metals (copper), these compounds have been reported to be mutagenic.
Fluoxymesterone neither induced chromosomal aberrations (Table 1 and 2) and sister chromatid exchanges (Table 4) nor affected mitotic index (Table 1 and 2) and replication index (Table 4) at significant level even at the highest tested dose i.
Impact of types of lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations on human cancer risk: results from Nordic and Italian cohorts.
In accordance with FDA guidance, these studies consisted of an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test, an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test and an in vivo rodent micronucleus test to assess for chromosomal damage.
The next common and prognostically significant chromosomal aberration in oligodendrogliomas is allelic loss on 9p21 with frequent deletion of the CDKN2A gene locus.
We have addressed the problem of inherited predisposition for DNA damage from a different angle, namely using the frequency of chromosomal aberration (CA) as a response indicator for occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic agents.
KEY WORDS: Bayesian, biomarker, cancer risk, case--control study, chromosomal aberration, genetic polymorphism, glutathione S-transferase, GSTM1, GSTTl, Monte Carlo Markov Chain.