As well as being antioxidants, the xanthophylls act directly to absorb damaging blue and near-ultraviolet light around the 400-450nm end of the spectrum, protecting the outer retina, RPE and choriocapillaris
from oxidative damage.
In GA, central scotomas correspond to areas that have developed atrophy, with a loss of retinal pigment epithelium, the overlying photoreceptors, and the underlying choriocapillaris
(Green & Enger, 1993; Sarks, Sarks, & Killingsworth, 1988).
The antioxidant capabilities of these xanthophylls combined with their ability to trap short-wavelength light may serve to protect the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choriocapillaris
from oxidative damage.
Approximately 70 percent of cases of severe visual loss in AMD are due to growth of abnormal blood vessels from the choriocapillaris
into the subretinal space.
The wet form of the disease involves the growth of blood vessels from the choriocapillaris
through the Bruch's membrane and into the RPE and sub-retinal spaces.
the retinal pigment epithelium), thus sparing damage to the sensitive overlying retinal layers such as occurs with other visible wavelength lasers; (2) experimental studies have shown that infrared diode (810 nm) laser treatment produces increased pre-retinal oxygen levels compared to argon lasers, which may in turn be more efficacious in reducing the progression to the exudative (wet) form of AMD; and (3), additional experimental studies have demonstrated that infrared diode (810 nm) laser may be effective in restoring normal transport mechanisms to and from the outer retinal layers/retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris
47) Elevated levels of endogenous cortisol are thought to lead to increased permeability in the blood-retinal barrier, choriocapillaris
, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
Retinal detachment is the separation of the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choriocapillaris
by sub-retinal fluid.
It is constantly being cleared by the RPE and choriocapillaris
, but this slows down with both age and disease processes.
This is a chronic degenerative disease that primarily affects the choriocapillaris
, Bruch's membrane, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells.
Any break in the attached retina appears redder than the surrounding tissue because of the unobstructed view of the choriocapillaris
Patches of retinal pigment epithelium (RPEJ overlying occluded choriocapillaris
appear yellow and profusely leak on fluorescein angiography.