cholinergic blocking agent


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cholinergic blocking agent

any agent that blocks the action of acetylcholine and substances similar to acetylcholine. Such agents, in effect, block the action of cholinergic nerves that transmit impulses by the release of acetylcholine at their synapses.

agent

(a'jent) [L. agere, to do]
Someone or something that causes an effect. For example, bacteria that cause disease are agents of the specific diseases they cause, and medicine is a therapeutic agent.

adrenergic neuron-blocking agent

Any substance that inhibits transmission of sympathetic nerve stimuli regardless of whether alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors are involved.
See: alpha-adrenergic receptor; beta-adrenergic receptor

alkylating agent

Any substance that introduces an alkyl radical into a compound in place of a hydrogen atom. Alkylating agents are used to treat cancer because they interfere with cell metabolism and growth. Examples include cis-platinum and cyclophosphamide.

alpha-adrenergic blocking agent

A substance that interferes with the transmission of stimuli through pathways that normally allow sympathetic nervous excitatory stimuli to be effective. Agents from this class are used to treat hypertension and prostatic hyperplasia.
See: beta-adrenergic blocking agent

anabolic agent

Any of a class of steroid hormones resembling testosterone. These agents stimulate the growth or manufacture of body tissues. They have been used, sometimes in high doses, by male and female athletes to improve performance. This use has been judged to be illegal by a number of organizations that supervise sports, including the International Olympic Committee and the U.S. Olympic Committee. These agents are also used to treat patients with wasting illnesses. See: doping; ergonomic aid

CAUTION!

Indiscriminate use of anabolic agents is inadvisable because of the undesirable side effects they may produce, e.g., in women, hirsutism, masculinization, and clitoral hypertrophy; in men, aggressiveness and testicular atrophy.

antianxiety agent

Anxiolytic.

antiulcer agent

A drug used to prevent or treat ulcers of the stomach or small intestine.

beta-adrenergic agent

A synthetic or natural drug that stimulates beta (sympathetic) receptors, e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine.

beta-adrenergic blocking agent

Any drug that inhibits the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and of adrenergic hormones.

Members of this class of drugs are used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, arrhythmias, glaucoma, and other conditions. Commonly prescribed beta blockers include atenolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, nadolol, propranolol, and pindolol.

CAUTION!

Side effects of beta blockers include worsening of asthma, blunting of the cardiovascular symptoms of hypoglycemia, bradycardia, and heart block. Rapid withdrawal from a beta-blocking drug by a patient accustomed to its use may produce tachycardia or other arrhythmias, rebound hypertension, or myocardial ischemia or infarction.
Synonym: beta blocker

blister agent

A vesicant, esp. any such agent (like mustard gas) used in chemical warfare.

buffering agent

Buffer.

CBRNE agent

Any chemical, biological, radiologic, nuclear, or explosive agent that may be used as a weapon in military or terrorist activities.

ceruminolytic agent

An agent that dissolves cerumen in the external ear canal. Obstruction of the ear canal with cerumen can cause itching, pain, and temporary conductive hearing loss. The first approach to treatment should be removal of the obstruction manually with a blunt curet or loop or by irrigation. Cerumen solvents are not always recommended because they often do not eliminate the problem and frequently cause maceration of the skin of the canal and allergic reactions.

cervical-ripening agent

Any drug that promotes dilation of the cervix in anticipation of childbirth.

chaotropic agent

An ion that disrupts membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins.

chelating agent

A drug, such as calcium disodium edetate, used to chelate substances, esp. toxic chemicals in the body.

cholinergic blocking agent

Anticholinergic (2).

clearing agent

1. A substance that increases the transparency of tissues prepared for microscopic examination.
2. In radiographic film processing, the active agent in the fixer that clears undeveloped silver bromide crystals from the film. The most common agent is ammonium thiosulfate. Synonym: fixing agent

colon-cleansing agent

A medication to force the bowels to evacuate, e.g., in preparation for colonoscopy.

cytotoxic agent

A drug that destroys cells or prevents them from multiplying. Cytotoxic agents are used to treat cancers and severe immunological disorders, e.g., vasculitis, some forms of glomerulonephritis. An ideal agent would destroy proliferating cells without injuring the normal cells of the body.

disclosing agent

A diagnostic aid used in dentistry to stain areas of the teeth that are not being cleaned adequately. A dye such as erythrosine sodium is used to color dental plaque so that inadequately brushed surfaces can be shown to patients.

Eaton agent

See: Eaton agent

erythropoiesis-stimulating agent

Abbreviation: ESA.
Any drug that binds to cellular receptors for erythropoietin and encourages red blood cell production by the bone marrow. Members of this class of drugs, which include epoietin and darbopoietin, are used to treat anemia, e.g., in patients with chronic kidney disease, cancer, or aplastic anemia. ESAs are used as an alternative to red blood cell transfusions. Potential side effects of treatment include high blood pressure and an increased risk of blood clots.

filling agent

filler.

fixing agent

See: clearing agent

differentiating agent

A medication such as all-trans-retinoic acid, used in differentiation therapy.

immunobiological agent

Immunobiological.

immunosuppressive agent

See: immunosuppressant.

luting agent

Lute.

nasal drying agent

Any anticholinergic, antihistaminic, or drug of a related class that decreases watery discharge from the nose, e.g., in rhinitis.

Norwalk agent

See: virus

ocular hypotensive agent

A drug that reduces intraocular pressure, e.g., in glaucoma.

oral hypoglycemic agent

Abbreviation: OHA.
Any drug taken by mouth that lowers or maintains blood glucose (as opposed to insulin, a drug taken parenterally to control blood sugar). In addition to diet and exercise regimens, OHAs are typically used to control blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commonly used oral agents for diabetes include metformin (a biguanide), sulfonylureas (such as glyburide), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose), and thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone). Used appropriately, OHAs lower hemoglobin A1c levels by about 0.5 to 1.5%.
See: table * Combinations of these drugs, either with each other or with insulin, may be used in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Class of DrugActivityAdverse FeaturesApproximate Cost
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, e.g., acarboseDelay absorption of glucose from intestinal tractFlatulence and other abdominal side effectsExpensive
Biguanides, e.g., metforminImprove sensitivity to insulin; decrease glucose production by the liverLess weight gain than with other agents; avoid in patients with renal failureVery expensive
Sulfonylureas, 1st generation, e.g., tolazamideCause beta cells to release insulinResistance to drug may develop over timeInexpensive
Sulfonylureas, 2nd generation, e.g., glipizide, glyburide, othersSame as 1st generation; also increase sensitivity to insulinSame as 1st generationModerately expensive
Thiazolidinediones, e.g., pioglitazoneImprove sensitivity to insulin; improve lipid profileMonthly monitoring of liver functions needed for some drugs in this class due to risk of toxicity. Heart failure and other heart diseases.Very expensive

progestational agent

Progestin (1).

radioprotective agent

Any substance that shields the body from damage by radioactivity.

reducing agent

A substance that loses electrons easily and therefore causes other substances to be reduced (such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide).
Synonym: reducing substance.

riot control agent

The formal term for any of those vaporized chemicals (such as chloroacetophenone and chlorobenzylidene malononitrile) used in tear gas. These agents cause irritation on contact, e.g., to the skin, eyes, or respiratory mucosa, and produce visual blurring, itching and burning of the skin, coughing, wheezing, nausea or vomiting, and occasionally asphyxia.

Patient care

To reduce the effects of a tear gas exposure, remove the victim's clothes and wash the skin and hair promptly and thoroughly in soapy water. Rinse exposed eyes with sterile liquids. Patients who develop asthma or wheezing should be treated with bronchodilators such as albuterol.

sclerosing agent

A substance used to cause sclerosis, esp. of the lining of a vein.
See: varicose vein

surface-active agent

Surfactant.

thermal agent

Heat or cold used to promote healing. See: physical agent modality

thrombolytic agent

Any drug that degrades blood clots. Examples include streptokinase, tenecteplase, tissue plasminogen activator, and urokinase. Such drugs are used to treat the abnormal blood clotting that occurs in heart attacks, some strokes, and pulmonary emboli. They are informally called “clot busters.”

CAUTION!

Thrombolytic drugs should not be given to patients with active bleeding, a history of surgery or major trauma within the preceding two weeks, a brain tumor, or other known risks for intracerebral hemorrhage.

thrombopoietin mimetic agent

A drug that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more platelets than usual. Drugs from this class, e.g., romiplostim, are used to treat diseases such as immune thrombocytopenia.

topical hemostatic agent

Any substance that can be applied to a wound or an incision to keep it from bleeding. Examples include adhesives derived from collagen or glutaraldehyde, cellulose-based products, fibrin sealants, hydrogels, and thrombin.

uricosuric agent

A drug, e.g., probenecid or sulfinpyrazone, that increases the urinary excretion of uric acid by blocking renal tubular absorption, thereby reducing the concentration of uric acid in the blood. It is used to treat gout.

Patient care

Probenecid and sulfinpyrazones are used to treat gout. Side effects of both include headache, gastrointestinal upset, epigastric pain, kidney stone formation, and peptic ulcer. These drugs should be avoided by patients with diminished renal function. Any uricosuric agent should be taken with milk, food, or antacids to reduce gastric distress. Patients should drink large volumes of water. Sodium bicarbonate (or potassium citrate) is prescribed simultaneously with these agents to alkalinize urine and keep uric acid crystals in solution.

vascular disrupting agent

Any of a class of medications used to destroy the blood supply of malignant tumors.

wetting agent

1. Any agent, such as a surfactant, that allows a fluid to spread over and coat a surface to which it is applied.
2. In radiographic wet film processing, a solution used after washing to reduce surface tension and accelerate water flow from the film to speed drying.

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic a·gent

(antē-kō-li-nĕrjik ājĕnt)
Drug that inhibits action of acetylcholine or cholinergic drugs at cholinergic receptors.
Synonym(s): cholinergic blocking agent.

agent

1. any power, principle or substance by which something is accomplished, or which is capable of producing a chemical, physical or biological effect such as a disease.
2. of disease; any factor whose excessive presence or relative absence is essential for the occurrence of a disease.

adrenergic neuron blocking agent
one that inhibits the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic adrenergic nerve endings.
alkylating agent
a cytotoxic agent, e.g. a nitrogen mustard, which is highly reactive and can donate an alkyl group to another compound. Alkylating agents inhibit cell division by reacting with DNA and are used as antineoplastic agents.
anesthetic agent
substance capable of producing reversible general or local anesthesia.
anticholinergic agent
cholinergic blocking agent.
agent change
change in an animal's chemical or antigenic configuration can alter its pathogenicity. For example, a case of nitrate-nitrite poisoning in a cow can become a case of nitrite poisoning after conversion of the nitrate in the rumen. Mutation and antigenic drift are other types of change that vary agent pathogenicity.
chelating agent
a compound that combines with metals to form weakly dissociated complexes in which the metal is part of a ring, and is used to extract certain elements from a system.
chemical agent
substance that produces change by virtue of its chemical composition and its effects on living tissues and organisms.
cholinergic blocking agent
one that blocks the action of acetylcholine at nicotinic or muscarinic receptors of nerves or effector organs.
determinant agent
only some agents are determinants of diseases in that they always cause disease, and the same disease, and the disease does not occur without the agent. Many agents require the intervention of other factors, such as anaerobicity of tissue, hepatic insufficiency or physiological stress before they can establish their pathogenicity.
ganglionic blocking agent
one that blocks cholinergic transmission at autonomic ganglionic synapses.
immobilizing agent
see neuromuscular blockade.
infectious agent
an organism able to live in or on the tissue of a living animal; may not necessarily cause disease.
agent interaction
is the interaction between precipitating and predisposing causes of disease.
oxidizing agent
a substance that acts as an electron acceptor in a chemical oxidation-reduction reaction.
agent properties
are the properties which determine the pathogenicity of the agent, the solubility and acidity or biodegradability of a chemical, the virulence, adhesiveness, resistance to antibacterial agents of bacteria and viruses and so on.
reducing agent
a substance that acts as an electron donor in a chemical oxidation-reduction reaction.
surface-active agent
a substance that exerts a change on the surface properties of a liquid, especially one, such as a detergent, that reduces its surface tension. Called also surfactant.
therapeutic agent
a substance capable of producing a curative effect in a disease state.
agent without disease
exemplified by the orphan viruses. The agent is of a type that causes disease, but none is associated with the presence of the particular agent.