cholera toxin


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Related to cholera toxin: Vibrio cholerae

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

Vib·ri·o chol·'er·ae

a bacterial species that produces a soluble exotoxin and is the cause of cholera in humans; it is the type species of the genus Vibrio.

cholera toxin

Infectious disease A heat-sensitive multimeric enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera, which transfers ADP-ribose to a G protein, locking adenyl cyclase in an 'on' position by ADP ribosylation of a Gs protein
References in periodicals archive ?
Development and validation of a mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR to distinguish between the cholera toxin B subunit of classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1.
Lysogenic conversion by a filamentous phage encoding cholera toxin.
We used cholera toxin and the simplest of adjuvants, which was aluminum.
The adjuvant activity of HA was higher than mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin in inducing neutralizing antibodies; and
To date for the CRADA, LANL has constructed a new bench-top type waveguide based biosensor system, developed a validated assay for a Tuberculosis biomarker, evaluated multiple assays developed using the bench top system specifically built for Biomagnetics, and is working on re-optimizing the proximity based assay for the cholera toxin on the newly constructed system.
Of the tested specimens, 34 isolates carried the tcpA gene, encoding the structural subunit of toxin-coregulated pilus, and the rstR gene, the repressor gene in the cholera toxin encoding (CTX) phage (3); these results may indicate that these strains belonged to the El Tor biotype.
Washington, Sept 12 ( ANI ): Researchers have identified an underlying biochemical mechanism that helps make cholera toxin so deadly, often resulting in life-threating diarrhea.
This is attributable to the subtle difference of cholera toxin (CT) encoded by ctxAB genes of V.
16] mol/L for the detection of cholera toxin with mix-and-run and dye-loaded liposomes.
By genetically modifying rice plants, scientists have created an edible vaccine that triggers an immune reaction capable of neutralizing cholera toxin, tests in mice show.
The cocaine molecule is too small to provoke an immunologic response on its own, so the vaccine consists of a complex of cocaine attached to the cholera toxin molecule.
The vaccine consists of a cocaine derivative and a deactivated cholera toxin which bind on to the drug, making it too big to get into the brain.