choanal atresia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to choanal atresia: CHARGE syndrome

atresia

 [ah-tre´zhah]
congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or tubular structure; see also obstruction. adj., adj atret´ic.
anal atresia (atresia a´ni) imperforate anus.
aortic atresia
1. congenital absence of the aortic orifice.
2. absence or closure of the aortic orifice, a rare congenital anomaly in which the left ventricle is hypoplastic, so that oxygenated blood passes from the left into the right atrium through a septal defect, and the mixed venous and arterial blood passes from the pulmonary artery to the aorta by way of a patent ductus arteriosus.
aural atresia absence of closure of the auditory canal.
biliary atresia congenital obliteration or hypoplasia of one or more components of the bile ducts, resulting in persistent jaundice and liver damage.
choanal atresia blockage of the posterior nares. When the blockage is bilateral in a newborn, it produces acute respiratory distress because neonates are nose-breathers. Diagnosis is confirmed if a catheter cannot be passed through the nares. Until surgery is done to relieve the obstruction, insertion of an airway may be necessary.
esophageal atresia congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus, commonly accompanied by tracheoesophageal fistula, and characterized by accumulations of mucus in the nasopharynx, gagging, vomiting when fed, cyanosis, and dyspnea. Treatment should begin with suction of the upper esophageal pouch, followed by surgical repair by esophageal anastomosis and division of the fistula as soon as the infant's general condition permits.
follicular atresia (atresia folli´culi) the normal death of the ovarian follicle when unfertilized.
laryngeal atresia congenital lack of the normal opening into the larynx.
mitral atresia congenital obliteration of the mitral orifice; it is associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and transposition of great vessels.
prepyloric atresia congenital membranous obstruction of the gastric outlet, characterized by vomiting of gastric contents only. Called also pyloric atresia.
pulmonary atresia congenital severe narrowing or obstruction of the pulmonary orifice, with cardiomegaly, reduced pulmonary vascularity, and right ventricular atrophy. It is usually associated with tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, or other cardiovascular anomalies.
pyloric atresia prepyloric atresia.
tricuspid atresia absence of the tricuspid orifice, circulation being made possible by an atrial septal defect.
 Tricuspid atresia, here displaying a ventricular septal defect and normally related great arteries, the arrows showing the altered flow of blood through the heart. From Dorland's, 2000.
urethral atresia imperforation of the urethra.

cho·a·nal a·tre·si·a

atresia due to congenital failure of one or both choanae to open owing to the failure of the bucconasal membrane to involute. It results in nasal obstruction and, if bilateral, can endanger neonates because they are obligatory nasal breathers.

choanal atresia

[kō′ənəl]
Etymology: Gk, choane, funnel, a + tresis, not hole
a congenital anomaly in which a bony or membranous occlusion blocks the passageway between the nose and pharynx. The condition, which is caused by the failure of the nasopharyngeal septum to rupture during embryonic development, can result in serious ventilation problems in the neonate; therefore providing an oral airway or endotracheal intubation may be necessary. The defect is usually repaired surgically shortly after birth.
enlarge picture
Unilateral choanal atresia

choanal atresia

Posterior choanal atresia ENT A partial or complete obstruction of bony–90% of cases or membranous passages from the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx, due to a persistent nasopharyngeal or buccopharyngeal membrane Management Transpalatal removal of obstruction and part of the posterior nasal septum, to prevent scarring; if membranous, probe perforation, laserization, cauterization may suffice.

cho·a·nal a·tre·si·a

(kōă-năl ă-trēzē-ă)
Atresia due to congenital failure of one or both choanae to open owing to the failure of the bucconasal membrane to involute; results in nasal obstruction.

atresia

congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or tubular structure.

anal atresia, atresia ani
see anal atresia.
aortic atresia
absence of the opening from the left ventricle of the heart into the aorta.
aural atresia
absence of closure of the auditory canal.
biliary atresia
congenital obliteration or hypoplasia of one or more components of the bile ducts, resulting in persistent jaundice and liver damage.
choanal atresia
see imperforate buccopharyngeal membrane.
follicular atresia, atresia folliculi
premature degeneration and resorption of a graafian follicle of the ovary. It may be postovulatory or preovulatory atresia. It is a normal occurrence when several ova mature together. Abnormal atresia may be a cause of anestrus.
ileal atresia, atresia ilei
the congenital obstruction in calves may cause sufficient abdominal distention to result in dystocia.
inherited alimentary tract segmental atresia
occurs in cattle and horses. A variety of segments are involved, including ileum, colon, rectum and anus.
jejunal atresia, atresia jejuni
resembles ileal atresia clinically.
lacrimal puncta atresia
atresia of the lacrimal puncta causing tearing from birth.
mesonephric duct atresia
causes stenosis or aplasia of epididymis or ductus deferens.
nasolacrimal duct atresia
atresia of the nasolacrimal duct causing tearing from birth.
paramesonephric duct atresia
causes uterus unicornis or duplex uterus or segmental aplasia of a uterine horn or tube.
rectal atresia, atresia recti
congenital absence of luminal development leading to abdominal distention after birth. There is obvious absence of feces and staining and inability to pass a sound.
salivary duct atresia
congenital atresia causes distention of the gland followed by atrophy.
tracheal atresia
common in English bulldogs; may be segmental or affect the entire length of the tube.
tricuspid atresia
absence of the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle, circulation being made possible by an atrial septal defect.

choanal

pertaining to or arising from the choanae.

choanal atresia
see imperforate buccopharyngeal membrane.
choanal slit
the sagittal slit in the hard palate of the normal bird.
choanal stenosis
choanal atresia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Evaluation of the choanal atresia repair prior to discharge revealed a stable, widely patent nasal airway (figure 5, D).
The single nostril and choanal atresia were not diagnosed prenatally, and the need for intubation at birth was not predicted prenatally.
Of the 2 cases, 1 infant died at 7 days, (15) and the other underwent choanal atresia repair but died of sepsis and respiratory failure on postoperative day 4.
As newborns are obligate nasal breathers, options for airway management in such cases include intubation with mechanical ventilation, oral airway insertion if tolerated, choanal atresia repair, and tracheostomy.
In choanal atresia, the posterior view provides a look at the abnormality and surrounding anatomical relationships.
Membranous choanal atresia is usually treated with endoscopic perforation.
This case highlights the significance of choanal atresia as a cause of upper airway obstruction in the pediatric population.
Patients with bilateral choanal atresia usually present emergently with cyclical respiratory distress.
1-3) A diagnosis of choanal atresia should prompt an investigation for associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, hematologic problems, prematurity, and other elements of CHARGE association (coloboma, heart abnormalities, growth or mental retardation, genitourinary anomalies, and ear abnormalities).
2) In cases of bilateral choanal atresia with airway distress, repair is usually performed as soon as the neonate's overall condition will allow; in cases of unilateral choanal atresia, treatment is generally deferred until later in childhood.
Gastroesophageal reflux complicating choanal atresia repair.