chloride shift


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Related to chloride shift: Bohr effect, Haldane effect

shift

 [shift]
a change or deviation.
antigenic shift a sudden, major change in the antigenicity of a virus, seen especially in influenza viruses, resulting from the recombination of the genomes of two different strains; it is associated with pandemics because hosts do not have immunity to the new strain. See also antigenic drift.
chloride shift the exchange of chloride and carbonate between the plasma and the erythrocytes that takes place when the blood gives up oxygen and receives carbon dioxide. It serves to maintain ionic equilibrium between the cell and surrounding fluid.
mediastinal shift a shifting to one side of the tissues and organs of the mediastinum; see also mediastinal shift.
shift to the left
1. a change in the blood picture, with a preponderance of young neutrophils.
2. an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.
shift to the right
1. a preponderance of older neutrophils in the blood picture.
2. a decreased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.
weight shift
1. the frequent movement of a paralyzed or partially paralyzed patient to redistribute the patient's weight and prevent impairment of circulation, which leads to pressure sores. One variation is the wheelchair pressure release.
2. relocation of a patient's center of mass in order to allow movement; see also gait.

chlo·ride shift

when CO2 enters the blood from the tissues, it passes into the red blood cells and is converted by carbonate dehydratase to bicarbonate (HCO3-); HCO3- ion passes out into the plasma whereas Cl- migrates into the red blood cells. Reverse changes occur in the lungs when CO2 is eliminated from the blood.

chloride shift

an exchange of chloride ions in red blood cells in peripheral tissues in response to PCO2 of blood. The shift reverses in the lungs.

chlo·ride shift

(klōr'īd shift)
When CO2 enters the blood from the tissues, it passes into the red blood cell and is converted by carbonate dehydratase to bicarbonate (HCO3-); HCO3- ion passes out into the plasma, whereas Cl- migrates into the red blood cell. Reverse changes occur in the lungs when CO2 is eliminated from the blood.
Synonym(s): Hamburger phenomenon.
Chloride shiftclick for a larger image
Fig. 100 Chloride shift . The entry of chlorideions (CI-) into a red blood cell from the surrounding plasma. Carbon dioxide is carried into the cell from respiring tissues.

chloride shift

the movement of chloride ions into a red blood cell (see ERYTHROCYTE) from the plasma. The carriage of carbon dioxide results in an accumulation of bicarbonate ions in the red blood cell, but because of the permeability of the cell membrane to negative ions they readily diffuse out into the plasma. The red blood cell thus develops a net positive charge (because of its retaining positive ions) which is neutralized by inward movement of negative chloride ions from the plasma. This ensures ionic and electrical stability during the transport of carbon dioxide.

Hamburger,

Hartog J., Dutch physiologist, 1859-1924.
Hamburger law - albumins and phosphates pass from red corpuscles to serum, and chlorides pass from serum to cells when blood is acid; the reverse occurs when blood is alkaline.
Hamburger phenomenon - movement of chloride from plasma to erythrocyte interior, or vice versa. Synonym(s): chloride shift

chlo·ride shift

(klōr'īd shift)
When CO2 enters the blood from the tissues, it passes into the red blood cell and is converted by carbonate dehydratase to bicarbonate.
Synonym(s): Hamburger phenomenon.

chloride shift (klôr´īd),

n the exchange of a chloride ion for a bicarbonate ion across the enthrocyte membrane as part of the buffering system in the blood. It accounts for the greater chloride content of venous erythrocytes than arterial erythrocytes.

chloride

1. a salt of hydrochloric acid; any binary compound of chlorine.
2. the principal anion in extracellular fluid and gastric juice.
Because of its domination of the anions in extracellular and intravascular fluid, it has profound importance for acid-base balance and for the regulation of osmotic pressure in these fluid compartments.

chloride pump
an active secretory process at a barrier membrane that facilitates the transfer of chloride ions across the membrane.
chloride shift
diffusion of chloride ions from the plasma into the erythrocytes to compensate for the loss of bicarbonate ions from the cells as a result of carbon dioxide metabolism. Called also Hamburger shift.

shift

a change or deviation.

antigenic shift
see antigenic shift.
chloride shift
see chloride shift.
shift to the left
an alteration in the distribution of leukocytes in the peripheral blood in which there is an increase in the numbers of immature neutrophils, primarily band forms but metamyelocytes or more immature cells may also be present; usually in response to an infection.
Enlarge picture
Canine blood smear showing a shift to the left with a segmented neutrophil (left) with toxic vacuolation and a metamyelocyte (right) with two Döhle bodies. By permission from Willard MD, Tvedten H, Small Animal Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods, Saunders, 2003
shift red cell
shift to the right
an alteration in the distribution of leukocytes in the peripheral blood in which there is an increased number of mature neutrophils but no immature cells are present.