chloramphenicol


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chloramphenicol

 [klor″am-fen´ĭ-kol]
a broad-spectrum antibiotic with specific therapeutic activity against rickettsiae and many different bacteria. Side effects include serious, even fatal, blood dyscrasias in certain patients. Frequent blood tests are recommended during therapy.

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol),
An antibiotic originally obtained from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against several pathogenic microorganisms. A serious reaction resulting in marrow damage with agranulocytosis or aplastic anemia may occur. Gray syndrome may occur in newborns because glucuronosyltransferase, needed to metabolize the drug, is lacking.

chloramphenicol

/chlor·am·phen·i·col/ (klor″am-fen´ĭ-kol) a broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against rickettsiae, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and certain spirochetes; used also as the palmitate ester and as the sodium succinate derivative.

chloramphenicol

(klôr′ăm-fĕn′ĭ-kôl′, -kŏl′, -kōl′)
n.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic, C11H12Cl2N2O5, derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae or produced synthetically.

chloramphenicol

[-amfē′nikol]
an antibacterial and anti-rickettsial.
indications It is used for the treatment of serious infections when the microorganism is resistant to less toxic antibiotics and also when its ability to penetrate to the site of the infection is superior to less toxic alternative antibiotics.
contraindications It is used only when safer drugs are contraindicated; pregnancy, lactation, or known hypersensitivity to this drug also prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions are bone marrow depression, aplastic anemia, and gray syndrome (characterized by circulatory collapse, cyanosis, acidosis, abdominal distention, coma, and death).

chloramphenicol

Infectious disease A broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against gram-positive cocci–eg Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative coccobacilli–eg Brucella abortus Complications Aplastic anemia

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol)
An antibiotic originally obtained from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against various pathogenic microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella abortus, Friedländer bacillus, and the organisms of typhoid, typhus,and Rocky Mountain spotted fever; active by mouth. A serious reaction resulting in marrow damage with agranulocytosis or aplastic anemia may occur.

chloramphenicol

An antibiotic originally derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae . It is highly effective in many serious conditions but has some dangerous side effects which limit its use mainly to external eye infections. In view of the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms, however, systemic chloramphenicol is again being used to treat dangerous infections. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names of the eye preparations are Chloromycetin, Kemicetin, Minims chloramphenicol and Sno Phenicol.

chloramphenicol

a BACTERIOSTATIC antibiotic produced by a species of Streptomyces that interferes with protein synthesis on the 50S subunit of the RIBOSOME of prokaryotes. Chloramphenicol inhibits the activity of the enzyme peptidyl transferase which catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids as they are added to the polypeptide chain.

chloramphenicol 

A broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa). It is commonly used in solution 0.5% or ointment 1% to treat bacterial conjunctivitis or blepharitis.

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol)
An antibiotic effective against several pathogenic microorganisms.

Chloramphenicol,

n a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antirickettsial agent that should be reserved for serious infections in which other agents are ineffective.

chloramphenicol

a broad-spectrum antibiotic with specific therapeutic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, chlamydia and anaplasmae. Side-effects in animals are uncommon, but its use in food-producing animals is discouraged or prohibited because of the danger of residues to humans. The palmitate preparation is a suspension administered orally and chloramphenicol sodium succinate is water soluble for parenteral use.
References in periodicals archive ?
The resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and TMP/SMX has been a major cause for concern in the recent years.
MRSA is rapidly developing resistance against routinely used antimicrobials including linezolid and chloramphenicol.
2003) found that all Streptococcal isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin (100%) and Chloramphenicol (100%), but less susceptible to Gentamicin (52%) and Tetracycline (23%).
The sensitivity of drugs like ampicillin chloramphenicol and co-trimaxazole were 2.
Sometimes raised intraocular pressure, corneal oedema, and poor pupil reactions Keratitis Vary depending on the cause, but characterised by (corneal corneal lesions which may be epithelial, stromal, inflamma- or both tion) Table 2 Topical formulations of chloramphenicol and fusidic acid available for the treatment of ocular bacterial infections in the UK Medication Chloramphenicol (POM) 0.
There was no monotonic resistance trend for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, and kanamycin among human E.
Louis, MO), cefoperazone (sodium salt), ciprofloxacin, piperacillin (sodium salt), gentamicin (sulfate salt) obtained from Sigma, tetracycline (hydrochloride) from USB and chloramphenicol from Fluka were used.
The Chloramphenicol resistant rate has been reported variably, Khosla et al and Adalet et al have reported resistant rate of 83% and 100% respectively.
Typhi isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was similar to that reported in Nagpur (14), whereas chloramphenicol sensitivity was comparatively higher in our study.