chemoreceptors


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chemoreceptors

Nerve endings stimulated to produce nerve impulses by contact with chemical substances or as a result of changes in the local concentration of chemical substances. The receptors for smell and taste, those for oxygen in the carotid bodies and those for glucose in the pancreas are of this type.

chemoreceptors

neural receptors that respond to some local chemical change. Usually refers to those which influence the respiratory and cardiovascular control centres in the brain stem: the medullary chemoreceptors, sensitive to pH changes in the cerebral extracellular fluid, and the arterial chemoreceptors which continually sense and respond to changes mainly in blood oxygen, carbon dioxide and pH, leading to appropriate reflex adjustments via afferent nerves to the brain stem control centres (e.g. increase in ventilation if arterial oxygen tension tends to fall and/or carbon dioxide to rise). See also breathing, hypoxia.

chemoreceptors

cells, or groups of cell membrane molecules, which initiate nerve action potentials
References in periodicals archive ?
In many lepidopteran larvae, the chemosensilla or chemoreceptors present on galea, maxillary palp, and the inner surface of the labrum are involved in determining food preferences (Ishikawa 1963; Ma 1972; Dethier 1973; Stadler & Hanson 1975; De Boer et al.
The compounds of potential feeding significance--most of which are known to elicit responses from chemoreceptor neurons (CRNs) in other crustacean species (Derby and Atema, 1988; Steullet et al.
The electronic database MEDLINE was searched from January 1982 to July 2014, with the following keywords: peripheral chemoreceptors, carotid body, hypoxia, ventilation, exercise, hipertension and chronic heart failure, by choosing articles with differentaged human subjects, between 16 and 74 years of age.
Therefore, Bisgard (Bisgard, 1995) showed that extended stimulation of the carotid body decreases the sensitivity of the chemoreceptors to hypoxia, which explains--at least partially--the increase in VE during the acclimatization phase.
But the peripheral chemoreceptors respond more rapidly to decreased or increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), decreased or increased PaC[O.
To simulate the prehypertensive SS baroreceptor systemic phenotype of partial baroreceptor impairment (10,13), a chronic bilateral aortic denervation was performed instead of a chronic bilateral carotid sinus denervation, because the destruction of chemoreceptors during the carotid sinus denervation (22,23) in a species like the rat, which lacks functional aortic body chemoreceptors (25), causes chronic hypoventilation with consequent chronic systemic hypoxia, which in turn has the chronic effect of lowering blood pressure (23).
2] stimulates the chemoreceptors located in the medulla oblongata that are sensitive to the amount of C[O.
2], as detected by the chemoreceptors in the respiratory control centres of the brainstem.
Red wood ants have special cells called chemoreceptors, which allow them to detect changes in carbon dioxide levels.
This output is influenced by input from chemoreceptors, proprioceptive receptors in muscles, tendons and joints, and impulses sent by nerves to the intercostal and diaphragmatic muscles.