Electronic chemical potential
(u) is a negative of electronegativity  and mathematically, can be expressed by equation (2).
Here we inserted the quark-quark strong interaction potential U(r) in the chemical potential
(for decreasing the free quarks energy, as we think, the quarks potential reduces the free quarks chemical potential
and make them condense at low energy) and because r < a we integrate over the volume [a.
As a consequence, the chemical potentials
of the counter ions in the elastomeric matrix containing sodium polyacrylate powder are higher than those of the counter ions in the aqueous solution outside the elastomeric matrix.
Notice that the potential energy of the buoyancy phenomenon does not affect the chemical potential
of the oil molecules, which is constant and independent of [R.
1999) and calculated by using the electronic chemical potential
[mu] and chemical hardness [eta].
The global reactivity descriptors such as ionization energy, electron affinity, molecular hardness, chemical potential
and molecular philicity were estimated at ab-initio level of theory employing HF /3-21G basis set.
This means that nitrogen transfer takes place in the direction of the gradient (increase) of its chemical potential
which at first sight contradicts the loss of thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics.
The Fischer-Tropsch process operates at elevated pressures; the ideal gas model for chemical potential
is not expected to be valid.
The familiar quantities from thermostatics like the (thermostatic) temperature, pressure, and chemical potential
do not exist in non-equilibrium situations.
But recent testing doesn't indicate that the migration is being driven solely by differences in chemical potential
If we start with a simple reaction such as the burning of alcohol (ethanol) we can represent the reaction as a simple two bar graph in which the first bar represents the chemical potential
energy in the alcohol and the second the heat and light generated by the reaction and the chemical potential
energy of the products of the reaction.
Since joining UBC in August 2001, he has been actively conducting his research in the three fronts of theoretical chemistry: fundamental theory; method development; and state-of-the-art applications including functional derivative, chemical potential
, embedding method, orbital-free density functional theory, molecular simulation, and modelling of chemical reactions in biological systems and on nanomaterials.