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peritonitis due to the escape of bile, contents of the gastrointestinal tract, or pancreatic juice into the peritoneal cavity; the contents of the fluid cause chemical injury, shock, and peritoneal exudation before any associated infection has occurred.
Etymology: Gk, chemeia, alchemy, peri, near, teinein, to stretch, itis, inflammation
an inflammation of the peritoneum resulting from chemicals, including digestive substances, in the peritoneum.
chem·i·cal per·i·to·ni·tis(kem'i-kăl per'i-tō-nī'tis)
Peritonitis due to the escape of bile, contents of the gastrointestinal tract, or pancreatic juice into the peritoneal cavity; the contents of the fluid cause chemical injury, shock, and peritoneal exudation.
inflammation of the peritoneum. The cause may be infectious or chemical. Typical signs are rigidity and pain on palpation of the abdominal wall, absence of feces, severe toxemia and fever. In horses there is a mild colic and in dogs and cats there is often effusion. Paracentesis may show evidence of inflammation.
acute diffuse peritonitis
in the early stages pain is evident all over the abdomen. There is soon a disappearance of pain, a profound toxemia develops and the disease may go undetected.
acute local peritonitis
added to the usual signs there is a sharp pain response over the site of the lesion.
peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.
see chemical peritonitis (below).
biliary peritonitis, bile peritonitis
that due to the presence of bile in the peritoneum; choleperitoneum. Is detected by the color of the fluid withdrawn by paracentesis. See also bile peritonitis.
may be caused by leakage of bile, urine, gastric juices or pancreatic enzymes in acute pancreatitis. Infusion of irritant materials can cause a similar chemical irritation.
is manifested by chronic toxemia, bouts of colic due to adhesions and an accumulation of exudate which may cause a visible distention of the abdomen. See also retroperitoneal abscess.
an uncommon result of abdominal trauma or tumors, intestinal obstruction or lymphangiectasia.
peritonitis in birds due to release of an egg into the peritoneal cavity with subsequent infection by Escherichia coli which have ascended via the oviduct.
feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)
see feline infectious peritonitis.
one caused by a primary infection of the peritoneal cavity, e.g. feline infectious peritonitis, or hematogenous spread from a noncontiguous site.
fatal peritonitis occurring in cultured salmonid fish soon after stripping, sometimes before. Caused by a number of gram-positive cocci and coccobacilli; Carnobacterium piscicola considered to be the most important infection.
see idiopathic peritonitis (above).
secondary to disruption of the abdominal cavity or a hollow viscus, particularly leakage from the gastrointestinal tract.
starch granulomatous peritonitis
talcum powder, and to a lesser extent, other powders used on surgical gloves can cause a granulomatous reaction on the peritoneum.
perforation of the gut wall or abdominal wall introducing infection into the peritoneal cavity. May result from stake or bite wound, inexpert passing of urinary or insemination catheter, sadistically by a broom handle in the vagina, or stabbing of the rumen as an emergency measure in acute ruminal tympany. See also traumatic reticuloperitonitis.
prolonged exposure of the peritoneum to urine, usually due to leakage from the bladder or a ureter, results in a peritonitis and the development of uremia. Bacterial infection may also be introduced.