charbon


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anthrax

(an'thraks),
Infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which in humans is caused by contact with infected animals or animal products, and ingestion or inhalation of spores of the bacterium. Worldwide concern is focused on the potential use of anthrax as a bioterrorist weapon, in particular as an inhalational agent. The most common naturally occurring form of human anthrax is the cutaneous, and both the inhalational and gastrointestinal forms are quite rare. Anthrax in animals occurs throughout the world, primarily in herbivores, especially cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.
Synonym(s): charbon

anthrax

An often fatal bacterial infection that occurs when Bacillus anthracis endospores (primarily of grazing herbivorous—cattle, sheep, horses, mules—origin) enter via skin abrasions, inhalation or orally.

Diagnosis
ELISA for capsule antigens (95+% senstivity) and protective antigens (72% sensitivity); detection of exotoxins in blood is unreliable.
 
Prevention
Prophylaxis (six weeks) with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin; vaccination with anthrax vaccine absorbed; decontamination with aerosolised formalin.
 
Management
Penicillin, doxycycline; chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin if (allergic to penicillin).

Anthrax, clinical forms 
Inhalation (Anthrax pneumonia, inhalational anthrax, pulmonary anthrax)
An almost universally fatal form due to inhalation of 1 to 2 µm pathogenic endospores, which are deposited in alveoli, engulfed by macrophages and germinate en route to the mediasitinal and peribronchial lymph nodes, producing toxins.
 
Clinical
Mediastinal widening, pleural effusions, fever, nonproductive cough, myalgia, malaise, haemorrhage, cyanosis, SOB, stridor, shock, death; often accompanied by mesenteric lymphadenitis, diffuse abdominal pain and fever.
 
Cutaneous
Once common among handlers of infected animals (e.g., farmers, wool-sorters, tanners, brushmakers and carpetmakers).
 
Clinical
Carbuncle, a cluster of boils that later ulcerates, resulting in a hard black centre surrounded by bright red inflammation; rare cases that become systemic are almost 100% fatal.
 
Gastrointestinal
After ingesting contaminated meat (2 to 5 days); once ingested, spores germinate, causing ulceration, haemorrhagic and necrotising gastroenteritis.
 
Clinical
Fever, diffuse abdominal pain with rebound tenderness, melanic stools, coffee grounds vomit, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, shock; death is due to intestinal perforation or anthrax toxemia.

Oropharyngeal
Uncommon; follows ingestion of contaminated meat.
 
Clinical
Cervical oedema, lymphadenopathy (causing dysphagia), respiratory difficulty.

Anthrax meningitis
A rare, usually fatal complication of GI or inhalation anthrax, with death occurring 1 to 6 days after onset of illness.
 
Clinical
Meningeal symptoms, nuchal rigidity, fever, fatigue, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, agitation, seizures, delirium, followed by neurologic degeneration and death.

charbon

[Fr.] see anthrax.
References in periodicals archive ?
Description et traitement du charbon dans les animaux.
Le projet consiste a freiner le deboisement des terres du fait de la production massive de charbon dans le village d Angbavia, a Toumodi, en reconvertissant les charbonniers en apiculteurs modernes et en les emmenant a realiser un reboisement de quatre (04) hectares de terres en acacia mangium en vue de la production de charbon dans cinq (05) ans.
La tres ancienne cooperation egypto-russe sera elargie cette fois-ci vers le domaine minier, notamment dans l'extraction du charbon dans la peninsule sinaitique.
Je deris dam le present document un Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri droit enracine au-dessus de charbon de Point Aconi dam la Formation du Pennsylvanien moyen de Sydney Mines, en Nouvelle-Ecosse-premier exemple de pteridosperme autochtone decrit dans les ouvrages.
Examples of media displayed at the galleries includes: drawings, engravings, woodcuts, wood engravings, linocuts, etchings, mezzotint, aquatint, drypoint, monoprints, monotypes, lithography, screen-prints, serigraphs, digital and Giclee prints, foil imaging, collage, oil paintings, reverse glass paintings, pastels, watercolors, photography, photograms, Le Tirage Au Charbon method photographs, sculpture, masks, paper cutting and paper sculpture, ceramics, glass, textiles, mixed media, livres d'artistes books and portfolios, murals, new media art, computer art, multimedia art, video art, holograms, graffiti and unauthorized signage art, robotic art, interactive art, installation art, and more.
Les inhibitions de substrat qui se manifestent dans le systeme de cometabolisme du chlorophenol-4 (cp-4) et du phenol ont ete reduites par l'application de charbon actif granulaire (GAC) lors d'une biodegradation discontinue.
In the Canadian International Landmark brochure, jointly sponsored by the CSC and the American Chemical Society, this sentence also appears as, "Si les reserves de petrole devaient diminuer assez pour emporter le prix suffisamment au-dessus de celui du charbon, l'industrie pourrait redevenir une des principales bases de produits chimiques organiques.
eme] siecle, le bassin de Decazeville specialise dans la production de charbon et dans Ia sidaro-metallurgie depuis le [19.
Or, le prix du charbon n'a pas baisse et il est tres peu probable que les loyers aient diminue dans ces quatre villes en pleine poussee urbaine.
beaucoup moins que] Nous n'avons pas de lecons a recevoir [beaucoup plus grand que] Il a fait remarquer que la production de l'energie electrique en Algerie est a base de gaz naturel, lequel est considere, malgre le fait qu'il soit une energie fossile, comme une energie propre par rapport a d'autres sources d'energie, comme le charbon et le petrole.
Il etait envoye par les mines de charbon, notamment du nord et de l'est de la France pour recruter de la main d'oeuvre.