chain


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Related to chain: Markov chain

chain

 [chān]
a collection of objects linked together in linear fashion, or end to end, as the assemblage of atoms or radicals in a chemical compound, or an assemblage of individual bacterial cells.
branched chain an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
closed chain several atoms linked together so as to form a ring, which may be saturated, as in cyclopentane, or aromatic, as in benzene.
H chain (heavy chain) any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the L or light chains, make up the antibody molecule of an immunoglobulin; heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the classes of immunoglobulins. See also heavy chain disease.
J chain a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
L chain (light chain) either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to H or heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule of an immunoglobulin monomer; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
open chain a series of atoms united in a straight line; components of this series are related to methane.
chain reaction a chemical reaction that is self-propagating; each time a free radical is destroyed a new one is formed.
side chain a group of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.

chain

(chān),
1. chemistry a series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
2. bacteriology a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
3. A series of reactions.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
4. In anatomy, a linked series of structures, for example, ossicular chain, chain ganglia , under ganglion.
See also: sympathetic trunk.
[L. catena]

chain

(chān) a collection of objects linked end to end.
branched chain  an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
closed chain  several atoms linked together so as to form a ring, which may be saturated, as in cyclopentane, or aromatic, as in benzene.
electron transport chain  the final common pathway of biological oxidation, the series of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane that pass electrons from reduced coenzymes to molecular oxygen via sequential redox reactions coupled to proton transport, generating energy for biological processes.
Enlarge picture
Electron transport chain showing the three sites of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation, generating adenosine triphosphate.
H chain , heavy chain any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the light chains, make up the antibody molecule. Heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the immunoglobulin classes.
J chain  a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
L chain , light chain either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
open chain  a series of atoms united in a straight line; compounds of this series are related to methane.
polypeptide chain  the structural element of protein, consisting of a series of amino acid residues (peptides) joined together by peptide bonds.
respiratory chain  electron transport c.
side chain  a group of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.

chain

Etymology: L, catena
1 a length of several units linked together in a linear pattern, such as a polypeptide chain of amino acids or a chain of atoms forming a chemical molecule.
2 a group of individual bacteria linked together, such as streptococci formed by a chain of cocci.
3 the serial relationship of certain structures essential to function, such as the chain of ossicles in the middle ear. Each of the small bones moves successively in response to vibration of the tympanic membrane, thus transmitting the auditory stimulus to the oval window. See also chain ligature.
4 a connected series, such as a chain of events.

CHAIN

Abbreviation for:
Contact, Help, Advice, and Information Network (Medspeak-UK)
Contrast Hierarchical Alignment and Interaction Network

chain

(chān)
1. chemistry A series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds.
2. bacteriology A linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.
3. A series of reactions.
4. anatomy A linked series of structures, e.g., ossicular chain, chain ganglia.
See also: sympathetic trunk

chain

(chān)
bacteriology a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other.

chain

a collection of objects linked together in linear fashion, or end to end, as the assemblage of atoms or radicals in a chemical compound, or an assemblage of individual bacterial cells.

chain binomial model
model of an outbreak of an infectious disease in which the outbreak is depicted as a series of steps with a binomial statement of the probability of an outcome at each step.
branched chain
an open chain of atoms, usually carbon, with one or more side chains attached to it.
heavy chain
any of the large polypeptide chains of five classes that, paired with the light chains, make up the antibody molecule. Heavy chains bear the antigenic determinants that differentiate the immunoglobulin classes. See also heavy-chain disease.
J chain
a polypeptide occurring in polymeric IgM and IgA molecules.
light chain
either of the two small polypeptide chains (molecular weight 22,000) that, when linked to heavy chains by disulfide bonds, make up the antibody molecule; they are of two types, kappa and lambda, which are unrelated to immunoglobulin class differences.
light chain disease
the overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain molecules by certain B cell tumors (plasmacytomas). See monoclonal gammopathy.
obstetric chain
used in obstetrics in cattle and horses to snare extremities and for traction. Made of rustproof metal with links designed not to kink or to jam. They have a loop link at each end to facilitate single-handed formation of a loop. The links are shaped so that the ring-grip handles used for traction will grip at any point and stay put with the strongest pull.
chain shank
a leather lead with a short section of chain at the proximal end. It can be placed over the horse's nose, through the mouth or across the upper gum for greater control.
side chain
a chain of atoms attached to a larger chain or to a ring.
stallion chain
strong chain, 1-2 ft (0.5 m) long, at the end of a solid lead. For leading a stallion with little chance of his biting through the lead.
chain termination method
References in classic literature ?
Then there was the sleigh ride, during which she found her tongue and chattered like any magpie, and so ended that glorious Christmas Day; and many and many a night thereafter did Rebecca go to sleep with the precious coral chain under her pillow, one hand always upon it to be certain that it was safe.
I wear the chain I forged in life,' replied the Ghost.
Out of the right fob hung a great silver chain, with a wonderful kind of engine at the bottom.
The chain of galley slaves had by this time come up, and Don Quixote in very courteous language asked those who were in custody of it to be good enough to tell him the reason or reasons for which they were conducting these people in this manner.
As I was groping to remove the chain from about my victim's neck I glanced up into the darkness to see six pairs of gleaming eyes fixed, unwinking, upon me.
I would gladly give some precious gift to show my gratitude for this kind deed; but I have nothing save this chain of little pearls: they are the tears I shed, and the sea has changed them thus, that I might offer them to you," the happy mother said, when her first joy was passed, and Ripple turned to go.
I am most happy that you like the chain, and that it should be here in time for to-morrow; but your thanks are far beyond the occasion.
Baffled in his attempts to traverse this mountain chain, Mr.
Give Kala Nag and Nazim twelve foot of chain apiece, and tell them to lay on twenty.
At night (the season for which the apartment was especially designed) it was illuminated principally by a large chandelier, depending by a chain from the centre of the sky-light, and lowered, or elevated, by means of a counter-balance as usual; but (in order not to look unsightly) this latter passed outside the cupola and over the roof.
But he ran on into the middle of the street, with a slipper on one foot and a sock on the other; he still had on his apron, and still held the gold chain and the pincers in his hands, and so he stood gazing up at the bird, while the sun came shining brightly down on the street.
One of these they kicked aside, and, unlocking the huge padlock that had held a chain about what had once been a human ankle, they snapped the iron band about my own leg.