cervicitis


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Related to cervicitis: chronic cervicitis

Cervicitis

 

Definition

Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix.

Description

Cervicitis is a inflammation of the cervix (the opening into the uterus). This inflammation can be chronic and may or may not have an identified cause.

Causes and symptoms

The most common cause of cervicitis is infection, either local or as a result of various sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can also be caused by birth control devices such as a cervical cap or diaphragm, or chemical exposure. Other risk factors include multiple sexual partners or cervical trauma following birth. In postmenopausal women, cervicitis is sometimes related to a lack of estrogen.
Although a woman may not notice any signs of infection, symptoms of cervicitis include the following:
  • persistent unusual vaginal discharge
  • abnormal bleeding, either between periods or following sexual intercourse
  • painful sexual intercourse
  • vaginal pain
  • frequent need to urinate
  • burning or itching in the vaginal area

Diagnosis

The standard method of diagnosing cervicitis is through a pelvic examination or a Pap smear. During the pelvic exam, the physician usually swabs the affected area, and then sends the tissue sample to a laboratory. The laboratory tries to identify the specific organism responsible for causing the cervicitis. A biopsy to take a sample of tissue from the affected area is sometimes required in order to rule out cancer. Colposcopy, a procedure used to look at the cervix under a microscope, may also be used to rule out cancer.

Treatment

The first course of treatment for cervicitis is usually antibiotics. If these medicines do not cure the cervicitis, other treatment options include:
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
  • cryotherapy
  • electrocoagulation
  • laser treatment

Prognosis

Cervicitis will usually be cured when the course of therapy is complete. Severe cases, however, may last for a few months, even after the therapy is complete. If the cervicitis was caused by a sexually transmitted disease, both partners should be treated with medication.

Prevention

Practicing safe sexual behavior, such as monogamy, is one way of lowering the prevalence of cervicitis. In addition, women who began sexual activity at a later age have been shown to have a lower incidence of cervicitis. Another recommendation is to use a latex condom consistently during intercourse. If the cervicitis is caused by any sexually transmitted disease, the patient is advised to notify all sexual partners.

Key terms

Cryotherapy — Freezing the affected tissue.
Electrocoagulation — Using electrical current to cauterize the affected tissue.
LEEP — Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure.

Resources

Books

Dambro, Mark R. The 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 2001.
Mandell, Gerald L. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennet's Principles and Bractice of Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Tierney, Lawrence, et. al. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. Los Altos: Lange Medical Publications, 2001.

Periodicals

Malik, S. N., et. al. "Benign Cellular Changes in Pap Smears. Causes and Significance." Acta Cytologica January-February 2001: 5-8.

Organizations

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 409 12th Street, SW P.O. Box 96920, Washington, DC 20090-6920. (202) 863-2518. http://www.acog.org.

cervicitis

 [ser″vĭ-si´tis]
inflammation of the cervix uteri.

cer·vi·ci·tis

(ser'vi-sī'tis),
Inflammation of the mucous membrane, frequently involving also the deeper structures, of the cervix uteri.
Synonym(s): trachelitis

cervicitis

/cer·vi·ci·tis/ (-si´tis) inflammation of the cervix uteri.

cervicitis

(sûr′vĭ-sī′tĭs)
n.
Inflammation of the cervix of the uterus.

cervicitis

[sur′visī′tis]
acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix. Acute cervicitis is infection of the cervix marked by redness, edema, and bleeding on contact. Symptoms do not always occur but may include any or all of the following: copious, foul-smelling discharge from the vagina; pelvic pressure or pain; scant bleeding with intercourse; and itching or burning of the external genitalia. The principal causative organisms are Trichomonas vaginalis; Candida albicans; gonococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus species; and Haemophilus vaginalis. Diagnosis is by microscopic examination, confirmed in some cases by culture and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Specific antimicrobial medication may be effective. Acute cervicitis tends to be a recurrent problem because of reexposure to the germ, undertreatment, or predisposing factors such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, multiple sexual partners, or poor nutrition. Chronic cervicitis is a persistent inflammation of the cervix that usually occurs among women in their reproductive years. Symptoms include a thick, irritating, malodorous discharge that may in severe cases be accompanied by significant pelvic pain. The cervix looks congested and enlarged, nabothian cysts are often present, and there are signs of eversion of the cervix and often old lacerations from childbirth. A Pap smear should be performed before treatment. The most effective treatments are hot and cold cautery. See also cautery, cervical cancer, cervical polyp, genital wart, nabothian cyst.

cervicitis

Cervical erosion Gynecology
1. A nonspecific inflammatory response to infection and non-infectious agents, characterized by hyperemia and a vascular pattern similar to punctation by colposcopy; unlike punctation, changes of cervicitis extend beyond the transformation zone. See Colposcopy. Cf Mucopurulent cervicitis.
2. Inflammation of the cervix by N gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis, which may spread to the fallopian tubes causing PID. See Cervicitis, Pelvic inflammatory disease.

cer·vi·ci·tis

(sĕr'vi-sī'tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane, frequently involving also the deeper structures, of the cervix of the uterus.
Synonym(s): trachelitis.

cervicitis

Inflammation of the neck of the womb. Most cases are caused by sexually transmitted organisms, especially Chlamydia trachomatis , causing non-specific urethritis; the gonococcus, causing gonorrhoea; and herpes simplex virus, type II, causing venereal herpes.

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix uteri.

Patient discussion about cervicitis

Q. How will my cervical muscu look like if am just few days prgenant like 12days How will my cervical mucus look like if am just few days pregnant because i have not seen my period for two days now.

A. i read that cervical mucus changes when ovulation occurs, becoming more "fluid". raising the chances of getting pregnant. but i don't recall seeing anything about changes during pregnancy...maybe one of the women in the site can light that point.

Q. I have hurt my cervical spine and shoulder in a rear end car crash in July. Why does it still hurt?

A. Spine and back injuries are known to to be causing a lot of pain and discomfort and for a long period of time. You should try and do some mellow exercise and physiotherapy that might help you a lot. If the pain is unbarable, you should consult your doctor about using pain medications.

Q. what does c4-5 mild central disk bulging impinging upon cervical cord without spinal stenosis or distortion of the cord . mild righ neural foraminal narrowing from uncovertebral joint hypertropy mean

A. Well this basically means there is a very small narrowing of the cervical (your neck area) spinal canal (where the spinal cord is), however the narrowing does not cause any damage to the spinal cord, therefore probably does not cause any major symptoms involving the nerves. The c4-5 bulging part refers to the part in between the two cervical vertebras c4 and c5, in which the disc (a part in the spinal cord) is sliding a bit side-ways, but again, it does not seem to be causing any trouble.

More discussions about cervicitis
References in periodicals archive ?
The full results suggest that moxifloxacin is potentially effective for treating various persistent STIs, not only NGU but also cervicitis and possibly pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Cervicitis was diagnosed when there was cervical muco-pus, on clinical examination.
The cervicitis and ascaris infestation were probably not related to the new onset of this AI.
Out of 28 patients with chlamydial cervicitis, 22 patients recovered clinically and microbiologically after 7-21 days of application of Praneem cream.
Some 9-13% of white women with cervicitis, PID or cervical friability were infected with chlamydia; among blacks, 5% of women with PID and 10-20% of those with other clinical signs of infection had chlamydia.
Cytologic features of chronic follicular cervicitis in liquid-based specimens: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
Two cases of cervical cancer in the presence of high CD4 counts CD4+ counts Age WHO Weight (cells/ (yrs) Parity stage (kg) [micro]l) EUA 40 P 3+0 II 50 506 IA 52 P 3+0 II 79 451 IIIB Follow-up Follow-up Age weight CD4+ counts (yrs) Biopsy and H&E (kg) (cells/id) 40 Dysplastic cervicitis 52 367 CIN III 52 Malignant squamous 84.
Discussion of the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in the evaluation of urethritis and cervicitis and treatment-related implications.
Extracts/infusions from this plant are popularly used to treat inflammatory and painful conditions like sore throat, rheumatism, hepatitis and cervicitis (Bastos et al.
Clinical studies have demonstrated an association of BV with adverse pregnancy outcomes, upper genital tract infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis, post-gynaecologic surgery infections, cervicitis, urinary tract infections, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and increased risk of sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus infection (3,4).
In women it can cause urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis and salpingitis eventually leading to peritubal adhesions that can result in subfertility or ectopic pregnancy.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of five different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis.