cerebral hemisphere


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

hemisphere

 [hem´ĭ-sfēr]
half of a spherical or roughly spherical structure or organ.
cerebral hemisphere one of the paired structures constituting the largest part of the brain, which together comprise the extensive cerebral cortex, centrum semiovale, basal ganglia, and rhinencephalon, and contain the lateral ventricle. See also brain.
cerebellar hemisphere either of the paired portions of the cerebellum lateral to the vermis.
dominant hemisphere the cerebral hemisphere that is more concerned than the other in the integration of sensations and the control of many functions. See also laterality.

ce·re·bral hem·i·sphere

[TA]
the large mass of the telencephalon, on either side of the midline, consisting of the cerebral cortex and its associated fiber systems, together with the deeper-lying subcortical telencephalic nuclei (that is, basal nuclei [ganglia]).
Synonym(s): hemispherium cerebri [TA]

cerebral hemisphere

n.
Either of the two symmetrical halves of the cerebrum, as divided by the longitudinal cerebral fissure.

cerebral hemisphere

Etymology: L, cerebrum + Gk, hemi, half, sphaira, ball
one of the halves of the cerebrum. The two cerebral hemispheres are divided by a deep longitudinal fissure and are connected medially at the bottom of the fissure by the corpus callosum. Prominent grooves, subdividing each hemisphere into four major lobes, are the central sulcus, the lateral fissure, and the parietooccipital fissure. Each hemisphere also has a fifth major lobe deep in the brain. The hemispheres consist of an external gray layer and an internal white matter that surrounds islands of gray matter called nuclei (the basal ganglia).

ce·re·bral hem·is·phere

(ser'ĕ-brăl hem'is-fēr') [TA]
1. Synonym(s): hemisphere.
2. The large mass of the telencephalon, on either side of themidline, consisting of the cerebral cortex and its associated fiber systems, together with the deeper-lying subcortical telencephalic nuclei(i.e., basal ganglia [nuclei]).
Synonym(s): hemispherium (1) .
Cerebral hemispheresclick for a larger image
Fig. 98 Cerebral hemispheres . Localization of functions in the human brain.

cerebral hemisphere

one of a pair of large lobes in the forebrain of vertebrates. In reptiles, birds and mammals the coordinating function is dominant and the cerebral hemispheres control most of the activities of the animals, whereas in lower vertebrates the hemispheres are associated mainly with the sense of smell. In mammals the enlargements of the cerebral hemispheres, the largest part of the BRAIN, are caused by the development of the NEOPALLIUM (part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX) which forms the entire roof and sides of the forebrain. The frontal lobes are particularly developed in humans and are the seat of memory, thought and a considerable part of what is considered to be intelligence.

cerebral hemisphere

large mass of the telencephalon either side of the midline, consisting of paired cerebral cortices and their fibre systems together with the corpus striatum

ce·re·bral hem·is·phere

(ser'ĕ-brăl hem'is-fēr') [TA]
Large mass of telencephalon, on either side of midline, consisting of the cerebral cortex and its associated fiber systems, together with the deeper-lying subcortical telencephalic nuclei (i.e., basal nuclei [ganglia]).

cerebral

pertaining to the cerebrum. See also brain.

cerebral circulation
arterial blood supply reaches the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries via the circle of Willis, in some species originating directly from the internal carotid and basilar arteries, in others via an interposed rete mirabile. See also blood-brain barrier, blood-CSF barrier, cerebrospinal fluid.
cerebral contusion
contusion of the brain following a head injury. See also cerebral contusion.
cerebral cortex
the convoluted layer of gray matter covering the cerebral hemispheres, which governs thought, memory, sensation and voluntary movement. See also brain, pyramidal tracts, extrapyramidal system.
cerebral cortical dysplasia
encompasses a range of disorders including neuronal heterotopia, microgyria, ulegyria, lissencephaly, pachygyria.
cerebral diencephalic syndrome
the clinical signs associated with lesions of the cerebral cortex and diencephalon. They include behavioral or mental change, abnormal movements such as circling and head pressing, deficits in contralateral postural responses and sometimes visual impairment.
cerebral dura mater
the membranous cover around the brain. Endosteal and meningeal layers are separated only by the cranial venous sinuses. Continuous with the spinal cord dura and the sheaths of the spinal nerves. Has three internal folds which separate sections of the brain. See falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, sella turcica.
cerebral edema, cytotoxic
caused by neurotoxins, this edema is intracellular.
cerebral edema, generalized
when all cerebral tissues are affected as in disturbances which create marked differences from normal of sodium and potassium ion concentration in tissues.
cerebral edema, interstitial
edema of the central white matter as in hydrocephalus affecting the brain and hydromyelia affecting the spinal cord.
cerebral edema, vasogenic
when the edema is intercellular and due usually to damage to the vascular endothelium.
cerebral flush
the congestion of the cerebral vessels causing a pink coloration; of infections by Babesia bovis and B. bigemina it is the former in which the cerebral flush occurs.
cerebral gyri
convolutions on the surface of the cerebrum.
cerebral hemisphere
symmetrical right and left halves of the cerebrum divided by the longitudinal fissure.
cerebral peduncle
see cerebral peduncle.
cerebral pia mater
thin connective tissue membrane that lies closely against the cerebral surface and carries blood vessels into the tissues of the brain.
cerebral piriform lobe
on the floor of the brain medial to the lateral olfactory tract.
cerebral pole
frontal (rostral) and occipital (caudal) poles of the cerebrum.
cerebral substantia nigra
occupies the interior of the cerebral peduncles.
cerebral syndrome
characterized by abnormal mental state, abnormal movements such as pacing or head pressing, visual impairment and seizures.
cerebral theileriosis
infection with Theileria parva or aberrant forms of T. taurotragi originating from the eland. Called also turning sickness.
cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
a disorder of the blood vessels serving the cerebrum, resulting from an impaired blood supply to parts of the brain. Called stroke in humans.
cerebral ventriculography

hemisphere

half of a spherical or roughly spherical structure or organ.

cerebral hemisphere
one of the paired structures constituting the largest part of the brain, which together comprise the extensive cerebral cortex, centrum semiovale, basal ganglia and rhinencephalon, and contain the lateral ventricle. See also brain.
References in periodicals archive ?
Participants exhibiting right cerebral hemisphere dominance, as measured by the CLB, will score significantly more direct hits in the autoganzfeld than those exhibiting left cerebral hemisphere dominance, as measured by the CLB.
The acute infarction observed in the right frontal cerebral hemisphere of this macaw was not detected on MRI.
Normally, the right and left cerebral hemispheres form independently in a unified process of neuronal proliferation.
On coronal sections, the cerebral hemispheres were asymmetrical with deviation of midline structures from left toward right.
The right jugular vein is usually larger than the left and is generally believed to drain most of the blood from the cerebral hemispheres, while blood from the posterior fossa contents drains into the left vein.
The brain showed bilateral enlargement of cerebral hemispheres, generalized ventriculomegaly, and enlargement of the mesencephalic aqueduct.
However, the cerebral hemispheres were replaced by 2 thin-walled, fluid-filled cysts with some floating islets and peninsulae corresponding to preserved cortex.
T2 or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI images typically show symmetrical parieto-occipital hyperintensities which appear hypodense on computed tomography; this represents white matter oedema in the posterior cerebral hemispheres (6,7).
Sernas, then a customs official and now a Calvinist priest (in a wheelchair following injuries received on July 31, 1991), had perforating wounds from Soviet bullets in both cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
Using MRI, the researchers measured the thickness of the cerebral cortex - the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, thought, and language - and observed the pattern of thinning to compute a risk score.
Dementia is a progressive deterioration of intellect, behaviour and personality as a consequence of diffuse disease of the cerebral hemispheres.
In fact, it is difficult to imagine a circumstance in which a blunt impact to the head transmitted enough force to tear bridging veins, subarachnoid and retinal blood vessels, and axons deep in the cerebral hemispheres without breaking a few capillaries in the subscalpular soft tissues.