central sleep apnea


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apnea

 [ap´ne-ah]
cessation of breathing, especially during sleep. The most common type is adult sleep apnea. Central apnea in which there is failure of the central nervous system drive to respiration sometimes occurs in infants younger than 40 weeks after the date of conception.
adult sleep apnea frequent and prolonged episodes in which breathing stops during sleep. Diagnosis is confirmed by monitoring the subject during sleep for periods of apnea and lowered blood oxygen levels. Sleep apnea is divided into three categories: (1) obstructive, resulting from obstruction of the upper airways; (2) central, caused by some pathology in the brain's respiratory control center; and (3) mixed, a combination of the two (see above).
Treatment. Obstructive and mixed types are amenable to therapy. Since many sleep apnea patients are overweight, weight loss improves the symptoms. Central sleep apnea is the most difficult to control. Medications to stimulate breathing have not proven beneficial. Mechanical ventilation or administration of oxygen during the night may help some patients.

The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is nasal continuous positive airway pressure, which the patient uses during sleep; the positive pressure exerted prevents the airway from obstructing. Another method that may be tried is a dental appliance to move the jaw forward during sleep. In the most refractory cases, such as when an anatomical airway obstruction can be demonstrated, surgery to remove it may be performed after consultation with a surgeon experienced in evaluating and treating such obstructions. Another treatment that is occasionally used is insertion of a special type of tracheostomy tube that can be plugged during the day for normal use of the upper airway and opened at night to bypass upper airway obstruction
central apnea (central sleep apnea) see adult sleep apnea.
deglutition apnea a temporary arrest of the activity of the respiratory nerve center during an act of swallowing.
initial apnea a condition in which a newborn fails to establish sustained respiration within two minutes of delivery.
late apnea cessation of respiration in a newborn for more than 45 seconds after spontaneous breathing has been established and sustained.
mixed apnea see adult sleep apnea.
obstructive apnea (obstructive sleep apnea) see adult sleep apnea.
primary apnea cessation of breathing resulting when a fetus or newborn infant is deprived of oxygen; exposure to oxygen and stimulation usually restore respiration.
prolonged infantile apnea sudden infant death syndrome.
secondary apnea a period of time following primary apnea during which continued asphyxia of the fetus or newborn, with a fall in blood pressure and heart rate, necessitates artificial ventilation for resuscitation and reestablishment of ventilation.
sleep apnea transient periods when breathing stops during sleep; see adult sleep apnea.

central sleep apnea

Cessation of breathing during sleep secondary to blunted drive to the respiratory muscles. This is not a single disease but comprises several disorders that manifest as apneic episodes during sleep. In general, central sleep apnea is divided into hypercapnic, and eucapnic or hypocapnic. In hypercapnic central sleep apnea, there is alveolar hypoventilation secondary to either abnormal central drive or respiratory muscle weakness. Any disorder that affects either the brainstem or the respiratory muscles can cause this (for example, strokes, muscular dystrophy). Eucapnic or hypocapnic central sleep apnea is mainly seen in association with Cheyne-Stokes respirations, resulting from heart failure and from other kinds of strokes.
See also: sleep-induced apnea.

central sleep apnea

a form of sleep apnea resulting from decreased respiratory center output. It may involve primary brainstem medullary depression resulting from a tumor of the posterior fossa, poliomyelitis, or idiopathic central hypoventilation.

central sleep apnea

Sleep disorders A type of life threatening sleep apnea due to defective responses to O2 and CO2 in the circulation Mechanism Possibly ↓ sensitivity to CO2. See Sleep apnea syndrome.

cen·tral sleep ap·ne·a

(sentrăl slēp apnē-ă)
Cessation of breathing during sleep secondary to blunted drive to the respiratory muscles. This is not a single disease but comprises several disorders that manifest as apneic episodes during sleep. In general, central sleep apnea is divided into hypercapnic, and eucapnic or hypocapnic.
References in periodicals archive ?
To see whether gradual death of the same group of neurons might be responsible for central sleep apnea, Feldman and his team injected some rats with the same toxin used in the previous experiment and then monitored the animals during every subsequent sleep period.
The company's initial product, the remed[R] System, is an implantable stimulation device that is designed to restore a more regular breathing pattern during sleep for patients with central sleep apnea.
Cardiovascular health company Respicardia Inc reported on Friday the receipt of approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for the new treatment option Remede System for patients who have been diagnosed with moderate to severe central sleep apnea.
Patients with cardiac failure often have associated central sleep apnea.
Central sleep apnea (CSA) is relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5% of cases.
When undetected obstructive or central sleep apnea is very severe, the consequences can be serious and potentially permanent, for example lower IQ.
But central sleep apnea, involving a malfunction in brain signals controlling breathing muscles, was more strongly associated with arrhythmias in the atria or upper chambers.
SAN FRANCISCO -- Patients exhibiting central sleep apnea are three times more likely to have an anxiety disorder than are those with no evidence of central apnea, a study of 314 adults referred to a sleep clinic shows.
Rachel has suffered from central sleep apnea since she was two years old.
Dad Andy said Rachel has suffered with the disorder, known as central sleep apnea, for years but the family are hoping treatment in America will finally put an end to the sleepless nights which have plagued them for almost a decade.

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