cell-mediated cytotoxicity


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cytotoxicity

 [si″to-tok-sis´ĭ-te]
1. the degree to which an agent has specific destructive action on certain cells.
2. the possession of such destructive action, particularly in reference to lysis of cells by immune phenomena and to antineoplastic agents that selectively kill dividing cells. adj., adj cytotox´ic.
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) lysis of target cells coated with antibody by effector cells with cytolytic activity and specific immunoglobulin receptors called Fc receptors, including K cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. Lysis of the target cell is extracellular, requires direct cell-to-cell contact, and does not involve complement.
cell-mediated cytotoxicity destruction of a target cell by specific lymphocytes, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes or NK cells; it may be antibody-dependent (see antibody-dependent cell-mediated c.) or independent, as in certain cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.

cell-mediated cytotoxicity

cytolysis of a target cell by effector lymphocytes, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes or natural killer cells. It may be antibody-dependent (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) or independent, as in certain type IV hypersensitivity reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been engineered to possess significantly enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), thus improving a key mechanism for tumor cell killing and offering potential for enhanced efficacy compared to traditional antibodies for the treatment of cancer.
Of particular note, it has been found to have potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and apoptotic activity (achievement of programmed cell death).
TG20 has enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), a key feature useful in the treatment of cancer and auto-immune diseases, and it has been shown to have 10-fold enhanced ADCC when compared side by side with rituximab in assays performed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or B-CLL, patient cancer cell isolates.
MacroGenics has optimized the Fc region of margetuximab to increase cancer cell killing via Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC).
The researchers from Peregrine, Affitech and UT Southwestern Medical Center confirmed previous observations that in vitro, anti-PS antibodies stimulate the tumor microenvironment to recruit monocytes and other immune cells to the tumor with resulting anti-tumor effects, most likely via cell-mediated mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
In in vitro preclinical studies, a fully human, non-fucosylated anti-fucosyl-GM1 antibody, MDX-1110, demonstrated robust cytotoxic effector function (both antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity) for killing tumor cells.
In a presentation(1) on Monday, a series of preclinical studies by a team of scientists from Peregrine Pharmaceuticals and Affitech A/S used a fully human anti-PS antibody, PGN635, to confirm previous observations that in vitro, anti-PS antibodies stimulate the tumor microenvironment to recruit monocytes and other immune cells to the tumor with resulting anti-tumor effects, most likely via cell-mediated mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).