cefdinir


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cefdinir

 [sef´dĭ-nir]
a semisynthetic, third-generation cephalosporin effective against a wide range of bacteria, used in the treatment of otitis media, bronchitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, bacterial pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections; administered orally.

cefdinir

Omnicef

Pharmacologic class: Third-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis and division by binding to cell wall, causing cell to die. Active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with expanded activity against gram-negative bacteria. Exhibits minimal immunosuppressant activity.

Availability

Capsules: 300 mg

Oral suspension: 125 mg/5 ml in 60-and 100-ml bottles

Indications and dosages

Acute bacterial otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 300 mg P.O. q 12 hours or 600 mg P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days

Children ages 6 months to 12 years: 7 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours for 5 to 10 days or 14 mg/kg P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days

Uncomplicated skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 300 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days. Maximum dosage is 600 mg/day.

Acute maxillary sinusitis caused by H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 300 mg P.O. q 12 hours or 600 mg P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days. Maximum dosage is 600 mg/day.

Children ages 6 months to 12 years: 7 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours or 14 mg/kg P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days

Pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes, chronic bronchitis caused by H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 300 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 5 to 10 days or 600 mg P.O. q 24 hours for 10 days. Maximum dosage is 600 mg/day.

Community-acquired pneumonia caused by H. influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis

Adults and children ages 13 and older: 300 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days. Maximum dosage is 600 mg/day.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• renal impairment, phenylketonuria
• history of GI disease (especially colitis)
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity tests as necessary before starting therapy.
• Give with or without food.
• Administer 2 hours before or after iron supplements or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium.
• Give capsules, if possible, to diabetic patients (oral suspension contains 2.86 g of sucrose per teaspoon).

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, seizures

CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation

EENT: hearing loss

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, oral candidiasis,

pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatomegaly, hepatic failure

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: chills, fever, urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash

Other: superinfection, anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

Drug-drug.Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Antacids, iron-containing preparations: decreased cefdinir absorption

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of cefdinir

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results

Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values

Drug-herbs.Angelica, anise, arnica, asafetida, bogbean, boldo, celery, chamomile, clove, danshen, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, horse chestnut, horseradish, licorice, meadowsweet, onion, ginseng, papain, passionflower, poplar, prickly ash, quassia, red clover, turmeric, wild carrot, wild lettuce, willow: increased risk of bleeding

Patient monitoring

• Monitor CBC and kidney and liver function test results.
• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient he may take drug with or without food.
• Instruct patient to report persistent diarrhea (more than four episodes daily) and other adverse effects.
• If patient uses antacids or iron-containing preparations (such as iron supplements), tell him to take these 2 hours before or after cefdinir.
• Inform patient that drug may temporarily discolor stools.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and herbs mentioned above.

cefdinir

/cef·din·ir/ (sef´dĭ-nir) a third-generation cephalosporin effective against a wide range of bacteria.

cefdinir

a broad-spectrum cephalosporin (third generation) antibiotic.
indications This drug is used to treat Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Morganella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus pyogenes, and S. aureus.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to cephalosporins prohibits its use. It also should not be used in infants less than 1 month old.
adverse effects Life-threatening effects include proteinuria, nephrotoxicity, renal failure, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, pancytopenia, hemolytic anemia (rare), and anaphylaxis. Other serious adverse effects include bleeding, anemia, thrombophlebitis; and increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and blood urea nitrogen. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
In a poster presentation today at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) in San Diego, CA, researchers presented pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo data showing that TXA709 acts synergistically with cefdinir against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a major contributor to the global antibiotic resistance problem, while also showing that the combination reduces the frequency of resistance (FOR), a measure of the degree of antibiotic resistance.
Put another way, the rate of treatment failure fell by nearly a quarter with amoxicillin and by nearly 40 percent with cefdinir, compared to the group that took the placebo.
Postoperatively, he was placed on ceftriaxone and was eventually discharged on ciprofloxacin otic drops and cefdinir for 1 month.
A Pooled Analysis of Seven Randomized Crossover Studies of the Palatability of Cefdinir Oral Suspension Versus Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium, Cefprozil, Azithromycin, and Amoxicillin in Children Aged 4 to 8 Years.
The Federal District Court for the Northern District of Illinois denied Abbott's request for a preliminary injunction, ruling in May 2007 that there was no infringement because the defendants' version of crystalline cefdinir was slightly different from the version specified in the '507 patent.
The prevalence of nonsusceptibility among PCN-N isolates was greater for five antibiotics (amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefdinir, cefotaxime, and clindamycin) when compared with PCN-S isolates (Table 4).
He reported that a literature review found virtually no cross-reactivity between cefdinir (Omnicef) and penicillin, despite concerns about the use of cephalosporins in patients with a history of penicillin allergy.
Two of the patients had received antimicrobial drug treatment (ciprofloxacin and cefdinir, respectively); none of the patients developed an invasive infection.
Yeni bir oral sefalosporin; Sefdinir A new oral third generation oral cephalosporin; Cefdinir
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins include cefdinir and cefpodoxime, which are active against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria.
18) They found that 91% of causative pathogens were eradicated by a 5-day regimen of telithromycin, a value comparable to those reported for standard durations of therapy with amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, cefdinir, and cefuroxime axetil.
LONDON -- The key intermediate of cephem compounds, GCLE (CAS 104146-10-3) is extensively used in the synthesis of a raft of antibiotics such as Cefpodoxime Proxetil, Cefprozil, Cefdinir, etc.