By consensus, known lepidopteran antimicrobial peptides are arranged into the families of defensins, cecropins and moricins, attacins, gloverins, and lebocins (Rayaprolu et al.
virescens hemolymph such as cecropins (P83413, P83414, P83415), heliocin (P83427; Gennaro et al.
Several inducible AMPs including cecropins
, sarcotoxins, defensins, thanatin, droscosin and coleoptericins had been well characterized in terms of the structures and mechanisms [20,21,22,23].
Among AMPs, cecropins (Cec) are small (~4 kDa) peptides containing 35 to 39 amino acids, which are amphipathic, as a high proportion of basic amino acids are present at the N-terminus conferring a net positive charge and the hydrophobic amino acids are rich at the C-terminus (Sipos et al.
Cecropin P1 and novel nematode cecropins: a bacteriainducible antimicrobial peptide family in the nematode Ascaris suum.
The use of Cytoporins to inhibit eucaryotic pathogens and neoplasms and stimulate lymphocytes and fibroblasts with synthetic peptides and naturally occurring cecropins
and sarcotoxins is claimed in the patent.
Zasloff suspects that magainins may be the vertebrate counterpart of cecropins
, 37-amino-acid-long antibacterial peptides found circulating in insects such as the Cecropia moth, which lacks both lymphocytes and antibodies.
Among the most common and well-studied antimicrobial peptides are the defensins, found in humans, the magainins, found in frogs, and the cecropins
and melitins, found in insects.
The genes which inhibit the diseases encode naturally occurring peptides, such as cecropins
and attacins, but also modified synthetic lytic peptides, with greatly enhanced activity and effectiveness.
Among the most common and well-studied antimicrobial peptides are the defensins found in humans, the magainins found in frogs, and the cecropins
and melitins found in insects.
Cecropins are the key to the moth's immune defense system which kills invading bacteria and other pathogenic microbes by selectively disrupting the microbes' cell membranes.
0365598 covers applications of Cecropin and modified synthetic Cecropin derivatives for treatment of diseases in humans and other animals which are caused by yeast, fungal or protozoan infections.