It appears that fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids are extremely protective against pollutant-induced inflammation, and membrane domains such as caveolae
or other types of lipid rafts may provide a regulatory platform for cellular protection by omega-3 fatty acids (Layne et al.
13) The features consistent with smooth muscle cell origin include the absence of fibronexus junctions, the absence of numerous rough endoplasmic reticula in abundant cytoplasm, and the presence of external lamina with subplasmalemmal density associating with caveolae
The entire process is localized to microscopic pockets known as caveolae
, located in the outer membranes of the endothelial cells that line the arterial wall.
Just as the probing of a new cave's mineral deposits can yield discoveries richer than the finding of the cave itself, the identification of the chemicals inside cellular chambers called caveolae
is proving a mother lode for researchers.
In the second predicted pathway (Figure 1B), ADD3, along with MSRA and CD47, may also interact independently with APOA1 (apolipo-protein A-1) and CAV1 (caveolin 1, caveolae
protein, 22kDa) to regulate biological quality, homeostasis, cellular components of movement, positive regulation of biological process, and response to stimuli (p= 2.
Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) at the surface of caveolae
in human adipocytes.
Caveolin-1 is a 21-kDa integral membrane protein and one of the major structural components of caveolae
in most mammalian cells, along with caveolin-2 and caveolin-3.
Lipid rafts/ caveolae
serve as such a plasma membrane (PM) microdomain wherein highly specific signaling molecules are assembled so as to efficiently execute a defined signaling event with precision.
This collection brings together current hypotheses about the structure and functions of lipid rafts and caveolae
, which are free cholesterol/sphingolipid rich microdomains of the cell surface and assembly sites for many transmembrane signaling complexes.
One domain consists of the contacts between the sarcolemma and the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (cytoskeletal domain), another contains caveolae
are microdomains of the plasma membrane that have been implicated in signal transduction), and the third contains adherens junctions, which are also referred to as membrane-associated dense bodies.
The mechanism of action is due to the specific entry of squalamine into activated endothelial cells through membrane invaginations known as caveolae
, and subsequent binding and chaperoning of calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment.
The chambers, called caveolae
, or "tiny caves," keep cells in touch with their neighbors and with their environment, he says.