catecholamines


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cat·e·chol·a·mines

(kat'ĕ-kol'ă-mēnz),
Pyrocatechols with an alkylamine side chain; examples of biochemical interest are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and l-dopa. Catecholamines are major elements in responses to stress.

cat·e·chol·a·mines

(kat'ĕ-kol'ă-mēnz)
Pyrocatechols with an alkylamine side chain; examples of biochemical interest are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and l-dopa. Catecholamines are major elements in responses to stress.

catecholamines

The group of AMINES, which includes adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and chemically related amines. These are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, and act as neurotransmitters or hormones.

Catecholamines

Family of neurotransmitters containing dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, produced and secreted by cells of the adrenal medulla in the brain. Catecholamines have excitatory effects on smooth muscle cells of the vessels that supply blood to the skin and mucous membranes and have inhibitory effects on smooth muscle cells located in the wall of the gut, the bronchial tree of the lungs, and the vessels that supply blood to skeletal muscle. There are two different main types of receptors for these neurotransmitters, called alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. The catecholamines are therefore are also known as adrenergic neurotransmitters.

catecholamines

substances that mediate the effects of activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Released into the blood as hormones from the adrenal medulla, and act as neurotransmitters at sympathetic nerve endings and within the central nervous system. The main ones are adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine. See also adrenoceptors, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

catecholamines

adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

catecholamines (kaˈ·t·kōˑ·l·mēnz),

n.pl a group of substances derived from tyrosine that act as hormones to stimulate cellular activity and carry nerve impulses through the body.
References in periodicals archive ?
After surgery, 24-hour urine examination is done for measuring fractionated catecholamines and metanephrines levels.
Some histologically proven adrenal pheochromocytomas are tumors that do not produce or secrete catecholamines and metanephrines.
These tumours usually get diagnosed late due to their low incidence and lack of catecholamine secretion.
While there are multiple methods available for the measurement of catecholamines, liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry remains the gold standard (Li 2014) for these and many other biological analytes (Grebe et al.
There are probably other neurohumoral agents secreted by the tumor chromaffin cells, such as neuropeptide Y, that can act synergistically with the catecholamines and worsen the myocardial injury and the patient's progress.
Such results may be due to the fact of catecholamines, as well as the presence of these self-inducers in the conditioned medium, induce cell multiplication (FREESTONE et al.
In this case, before the night of admission, the only symptoms were occasional palpitations, worsening over a period of several years, which in retrospect were always associated with increased abdominal pressure which apparently pushed on the tumor to secrete a surge of excess catecholamines.
Although different markers, including catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid, are utilized as diagnostic tests, total and fractionated metanephrines in plasma or urine provide the best valid laboratory test for excluding or confirming pheochromocytoma.
Catecholamines are substances produced by nerve tissue including the brain and the inner part of the adrenal glands.
After a preoperative medical consult and adequate preoperative catecholamine blockade, the patient underwent bilateral open adrenal-ectomies with a chevron incision.
General physiological changes upon acute exposure to altitude include increased resting and sub-maximal heart rate (HR), increased resting and sub-maximal ventilation (VE), increased blood pressure (BP), increased catecholamine secretion, and decreased V[O.