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A decision-making method used in biomedical ethics; based on previous experience with similar cases.
[L. casus, case]
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There are a number of features to the model of casuistry that Jonsen and Toulmin attempt to revitalize as an alternative to modern, theory-based ethics, each generating an array of suggestions regarding how a casuist ethics committee might be formed and directed.
22) See Jean-Marie Aubert's remark that the casuist considers the terrain between law and liberty ("Morale et casuistique," Recherches de sciences religieuses 68 [1980] 167-204, at 203).
Although further historical studies are required to document the various strands of tradition, the loss of the proximate end and the perspective of the acting person in much of the post-Tridentine speculative and casuist tradition seems to have contributed greatly to its mid-twentieth-century collapse under charges of "physicalism" and "biologism," and to the development of alternative revisionist moral theories after the Second Vatican Council.
Tierney looks at 11th-century canonists, Porter at 12th-century Scholastics, Toulmin and Jonsen at 16th-century university casuists, and Valadier at the Enlightenment.
From this casuistry, casuists developed ways of accommodating new cases while upholding principles, a point that the German moral theologian Bruno Schuller has already noted.
To illustrate this foolish aspiration, he points to the books of casuistry that sought to aid confessors in the church, noting that the casuists attempted to provide a grammar for all human conduct.
As noted above, the father spurns the doctrine of predestination, terming it "a paltry way / Of fooling God some casuists hit upon" and a form of blasphemy that "makes of God / An impotent spectator
Joseph Hospital, these people were facing a tragic moral situation and one that's haunted Catholic casuists for decades.
As for Francis's moral character, the author comments, "Romish casuists say that [Francis's sale of his father's goods] was justified by the simplicity of his heart.
The Casuists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have left us a shameful monument to the bestial refinement of all vices, the depravation of imagination, the private hardships of the family and the ruin of morals that run through those deplorable societies.
Casuists, represented most prominently by Albert Jonson and Stephen Toulmin, (2) suggested that ethical decision making was best done by attempting to relate particular ethical dilemmas and situations to paradigm cases (the name "casuistry" refers to "cases") and then adapting the paradigm case to the particular case as a way of making an ethical decision.