glucose /glu·cose/ (gloo´kōs)
a six-carbon aldose occurring as the d- form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other plants or combined in glucosides and di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism, and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization being controlled by insulin. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and, beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue. Glucose appears in the urine in diabetes mellitus. In pharmaceuticals, called dextrose.
a thick, sweet, syrupy liquid obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch
and consisting chiefly of dextrose
, with dextrins
, and water; used as a pharmaceutic aid.
glucose 1-phosphate an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
glucose 6-phosphate an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
n a six-carbon (hexose) sugar that is the principal sugar in blood and serves as a major metabolic source of energy.
glucose, casual plasma
n the amount of glucose in the blood at any time, unrelated to eating.
glucose, fasting plasma
n a self-administered test of blood glucose levels for diabetes patients. The blood is tested after at least 8 hours of fasting. If results of the test are consistently at or above 126 mg/dL, the patient is commonly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
n an electronic device used to measure blood glucose levels that can be used by a patient at home. The device provides an accurate reading of blood glucose level with only a drop of blood from a pricked finger.
n an antibacterial flavoprotein enzyme obtained from
P. notatum and other fungi. It is antibacterial in the presence of glucose and oxygen.
glucose, postprandial plasma
n the level of glucose in the blood plasma based on a sample of blood taken after ingesting a meal; used to diagnose diabetes.
glucose tolerance, impaired
n one category of oral glucose tolerance test results. The diagnosis is not necessarily indicative of diabetes, but the patient may be at risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease.
glucose tolerance test
n a metabolic test that measures the ability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates. A patient is administered a standard dose of glucose, and blood and urine samples are measured for glucose levels at periodic intervals following administration. It is most often used to assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
a simple sugar, a monosaccharide in certain foodstuffs, especially fruit, and in normal blood; the major source of energy for many living organisms. See also dextrose
Glucose, whose molecular formula is C6
, is the end product of carbohydrate digestion; other monosaccharides (fructose and galactose) are largely converted into glucose. Glucose is the only monosaccharide present in significant amounts in the body fluids. The oxidation of glucose produces energy for the body cells; the rate of metabolism is controlled by a number of hormones the most important of which are insulin and glucagon. Glucose that is not needed for energy is stored in the form of glycogen as a source of potential energy, readily available when needed. Most of the glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle cells. When these and other body cells are saturated with glycogen, the excess glucose is converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue. See also hypoglycemia
radioactive glucose used experimentally.
a thick syrupy, sweet liquid, consisting chiefly of dextrose, with dextrins, maltose and water, obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch; used as a flavoring agent, as a food, and in the treatment of dehydration.
an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
a liver (and kidney) enzyme that irreversibly cleaves glucose-6-phosphate to free glucose and phosphate; important in glucose homeostasis.
an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
a regulatory enzyme in the metabolism of glucose-6-phosphate. A deficiency of the enzyme in the erythrocyte results in a hemolytic anemia; an inherited abnormality in humans, rats and mice and acquired in animals in phenothiazine toxicity and ingestion of kale.
glucose phosphate isomerase
converts glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate and the reverse reaction.
glucose suppression test
suppression of blood levels of growth hormone by the intravenous administration of glucose is used to diagnose acromegaly.
glucose tolerance factor (GTF)
a naturally occurring substance containing chromium which potentiates the effects of insulin.
glucose tolerance test
a test of the body's ability to utilize carbohydrates. It is often used to detect abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism such as occur in diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and liver and adrenocortical dysfunction. If administered orally, it may also be used to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
Patient discussion about glucose
Q. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose? I am diabetic with type 2 NIDDM. My colleague with the same NIDDM type2 has a better glycemic control than me. He follows strict diet. He prefers fructose sugar and avoids other sugar as much as possible. He suggested me the same. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose?
A. All carbohydrates—like starch and sugars like dextrose, maltose and glucose must be controlled for high consumption by a diabetic. Whereas fructose sugar had a slight different metabolic route inside the body and it does not requires insulin. Glucose requires insulin. As a diabetic lacks insulin production; the glucose increases the sugar level of the body but fructose is out of this system of functioning by our body and makes a diabetic to control it well. The energy level of glucose and fructose are almost similar.
Q. When will I have the Glucose Tolerance Test? I am pregnant and wanted to know when I need to have the Glucose Tolerance Test and what is the test like.
A. The test is given between week 24 and week 28 of the pregnancy. First you drink glucose, which is very sweet. You can mix it will water to help it go down easier. Then, after an hour you will have a blood test to check your glucose levels.
Q. What Do my Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results Mean? I had an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test last week. I am 26 weeks pregnant. The results I got are 132 mg/dL. What does this mean?
A. If your blood glucose level was greater than 130 mg/dL, your provider will likely recommend you take another diabetes screening test that requires you to fast (not eat anything) before the test. During this second test, called the 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test, your blood glucose level will be tested four times during a three-hour period after drinking the cola-like drink. If two out of the four blood tests are abnormal, you are considered to have gestational diabetes.More discussions about glucose