cascade

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cascade

 [kas-kād´]
a series of steps or stages (as of a physiological process) that, once initiated, continues to the final step because each step is triggered by the preceding one, resulting in amplification of the signal, information, or effect at each stage. In electronics, the term is applied to multiple amplifiers. Examples in biochemistry include blood coagulation and the complement system.
coagulation cascade the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot.
The coagulation cascade. This scheme emphasizes the understanding of 1, the importance of the tissue factor pathway in initiating clotting in vivo; 2, the interactions between pathways; and 3, the pivotal role of thrombin in sustaining the cascade by feedback activation of coagulation factors. HMWK = high-molecular-weight kininogen; PK = prekallikrein; PL = phospholipid; PT = prothrombin; TF = tissue factor; Th = thrombin. From Schafer, 1994.

cas·cade

(kas-kād'),
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]

cascade

/cas·cade/ (kas-kād´) a series that once initiated continues to the end, each step being triggered by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
coagulation cascade  the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot.

cascade

(kăs-kād′)
n.
a. A succession of stages, processes, operations, or units.
b. Electronics A series of components or networks, the output of each of which serves as the input for the next.
c. A chemical or physiological process that occurs in successive stages, each of which is dependent on the preceding one, and often producing a cumulative effect: an enzymatic cascade.

cascade

[kaskād′]
Etymology: L, cadere, to fall
any process that develops in stages, with each stage dependent on the preceding one, often producing a cumulative effect.
Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs. Amiodarone Drug Evaluation. A trial comparing conventional therapy vs. amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias
Conclusion Slight increase in survival free of cardiac death; resuscitated ventricular fibrillation or defibrillator shock was better with amiodarone at 2, 4, and 6 years of followup; overall mortality is high, side effects are common

cascade

Physiology A molecular system capable of self-propagation or amplification, especially of a weak signal; once a cascade is initiated, it may continue to be amplified through positive feedback loops and pathways, until down-regulated by local mechanisms–eg, by proteolytic enzymes. See Complement cascade, Ischemic cascade, Metastatic cascade.

CASCADE

Cardiology A clinical trial–Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs Amiodarone Drug Evaluation–that compared conventional therapy vs amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias. See Amiodarone, Ventricular arrhythmia. Cf BASIS.

cas·cade

(kas-kād')
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]

cascade

A physiological system in which the completion of one event has an outcome that initiates the next successive event. Blood coagulation, for instance, is a cascade involving more than a dozen successive events. In genetics a cascade system controls the order in which genes are expressed.

cascade

sequential ENZYME reactions in which one activated enzyme activates the next in the sequence, which in turn amplifies the initial response, as in the COMPLEMENT system and BLOOD CLOTTING.

cascade

a series of steps or stages (as of a physiological process) which, once initiated, continues to the final step by virtue of each step being triggered by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect. For example, the coagulation cascade.

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